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Die Zeitschrift "audio-record" - Was ist (war) das Besondere ?

Diese Firmen-Zeitschrift war Jahrzehnte verschollen. Doch da stand eine Menge über den nationalen amerikanischen unabänderlichen Weg zum ungeliebten (und teilweise diffamierten) deutschen Magnetophon-Tonband drinnen. Mit diesen Informationen kann jetzt eine Menge an Schallplatten-Historie und ganz früher Magnetband-Historie "gerade gerückt" werden.

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audio record - 1948 - 06 (Vol.4 - No.6 - June-July)


Es ist Sommer und es gibt eigentlich nicht viel zu berichten.
Zumindest eine Betrachtung über die Funktion und Lebensdauer von Stahlnadeln ist lesenswert.

und der Bericht über den Kampf gegen den Musiker-Streik und die Auswirkungen auf die ganze Branche

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  • Anmerkung : Die (amerikanische) Gewerkschaft der amerikanischen Musiker rief einen USA-weiten Streik der gewerkschaftlich organisierten Musiker aller amerikanischen Profi-Orchester aus, damit die Aufnahmestudios bei den Sendern und natürlich die Plattenfirmen endlich etwas für die auf Platten aufgenommene Musik - die dann ja doch öfter gespielt würde (bzw. werden könnte) - bezahlen sollten. Das war der sogenante 2. "Petrillo Bann", der auf dieser Seite ausführlich auf Deutsch erklärt wird.

  • Die irgendwo mal gelesene Information, daß unbeteiligte Musiker gezwungen wurden, dieser Musiker-Gewerkschaft beizutreten bzw. aus anderen (Schauspieler-) Gewerk- schaften auszutreten, habe ich bislang noch nicht wiedergefunden. Da suche ich noch.

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It could only ....... Have Been Done With Discs
Es konnte nur ....... mit Discs gemacht werden

FREDERICK W. ZIV COMPANY - Von Frederick W. Ziv, Präsident - Cincinnati, Ohio

(Jeder, der auch nur im Entferntesten mit der Plattenindustrie in Verbindung stand, weiß, dass die Plattenfirmen und Transkriptionsfirmen im Dezember letzten Jahres (1947) so viele wie möglich von ihren Hits und Musikprogrammen eingespielt hatten, bevor das Petrillo-Aufnahmeverbot "Gesetz" wurde.

Im folgenden Artikel, ausdrücklich (besser : exklusiv) nur für "audio record", erzählt Herr Ziv, Leiter einer der führenden zusammengeschlossenen Transkriptionsfirmen des Landes, in seinen eigenen Worten, wie sein Unternehmen alle Ausdauerrekorde brach, indem er eine Reihe von Guy Lombardo Musikprogrammen vor dem Streikbeginn aufnahm.

Nochmals der Slogan : "Es hätte nur mit Discs gemacht werden können."

Die Tinte auf dem Kontrakt zwischen unserer Firma und Guy Lombardo war im letzten Herbst (1947) kaum trocken, als James C. Petrillo das Verbot von Musikaufnahmen ankündigte. Die Nachricht kam mit ziemlicher Überraschung und erfüllte die Luft mit frust und Hoffnungen. Hier machten wir uns zu einem sehr kostspielige Unterfangen auf, Guy Lombardo und seine legendäres Potfolio für unser Syndicat zu speichern, zu retten - und dort war Herr Petrillo, sagend: "das ist alles, Bruder."

Aber der AFM Ukase (die Vorankündigung ?) hatte eine Kurzform, die mit dem Slogan "vorgewarnt ist gewappnet" vorauseilte. Das Verbot sollte erst am letzten Tag des Jahres, dem 31. Dezember 1947, in Kraft treten. Es stimmte zwar, dass wir uns nur ein paar Monate auf die bevorstehende Leere vorbereiten konnten, aber dies war keine Zeit, um in einem Bart zu weinen; Dies war die Zeit, in der ein Ertrinkender nach diesem Strohhalm greifen konnte. Der Strohhalm war eine einfache Sache - Aufnehmen, Aufnehmen und nochmals Aufnehmen.

Wir begannen ein hektisches Rennen gegen die Zeit. "Sei schneller als der Ultimo !" Sie sehen, dass es für unsere Interessen von entscheidender Bedeutung ist, nicht nur ein halbes Dutzend Programme in einer fortlaufenden Reihe, sondern auch ein oder zwei einwöchige Sendungen, kurz gesagt, ein Minimum von 52 zu bieten und 104 wöchentliche Pakete.
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Guy Lombardo und seine Crew schwitzten mit uns. Wir haben sie praktisch Tag und Nacht in einem New Yorker Studio aufgenommen. Gelegentlich nahmen wir uns eine halbe Stunde Zeit, um in einem nahegelegenen Restaurant zu essen, aber meistens wurde Essen hereingebracht. Sofas und Stühle dienten zum Nickerchen. An einem einzigen Tag starteten und beendeten wir vier - zählen Sie selber - Halbstundenshows, und sogar David Ross, unser Erzähler aus der Lombardo Show, der ansonsten weniger als ruhig ist, brach mit einem wilden Yelft aus, der B-R-A-V-O buchstabierte!

Verstehen Sie das nicht falsch, das war nicht nur ein Kampf um den allmächtigen Dollar. Dies war eine Herausforderung für das amerikanische Genie, den amerikanischen Typ von espirit-de-corps. Die Idee eines Rennens gegen einen kleinen Tag im Kalender weckte unseren gemeinsamen Appetit; Wie im späten Krieg sind es die Blaupausen, die die Schlachten gewinnen. Unsere Pläne haben funktioniert und wir haben die Schlacht gewonnen.

Wir produzierten genug in der Serie, um einen respektablen Vorrat und die Gewissheit zu haben, dass unsere Verkaufsmannschaft Lombardo verkaufen und verkaufen konnte, was sie auch taten.

Obwohl die Produktion fast über die menschliche Ausdauer gesteigert wurde, würde man es beim Hören der Programme nicht merken.

Unsere Produzenten, Autoren und Regisseure arbeiteten Tag und Nacht. Sie arbeiteten mit den Lombardo-Sängern Don Rodney und Kennv Gardner ... mit den Musikverlegern auf Vorschuss-Melodien, mit Lombardo-Arrangeuren auf Melodien, die bis Ende 1948 nicht veröffentlicht werden. Die Ergebnisse: eine Reihe von Radioprogrammen, die ein neues Hoch in der Qualität setzen.

Aber trotz Lombardo und Ziv konnte es nur mit Schallplatten gemacht werden.
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Hier zum Vergleichen der englische Original-Text

(Everyone even remotely connected with the recording industry knows of the lastminute rush made by record companies and transcription firms last December to record as many of their hit tunes and musical programs as possible before the Petrillo recording ban became law. In the following article, written expressly for Audio Record, Mr. Ziv, head of one of the nation's topflight syndicated transcription companies, tells in his own words how his firm broke all stamina records in cutting a series of Guy Lombardo musical programs before the recording deadline.)

It could only have been done with discs.

The ink on the eontract between our company and Guy Lombardo was hardly dry last fall when James C. Petrillo announced the ban on music transcriptions. The news came with startling suddenness and filled the air with frustrated hopes. Here were we, embarking on a very costly venture, bringing Guy Lombardo and his legendary aggregation to the "syndicated circuit" for the first time - and there was Mr. Petrillo, saying: "that's all, brother."

But the AFM ukase had one compelling virtue which traveled by the name of "forewarned is forearmed." The ban was not to go into effect until the last day of the year, December 31, 1947. True, it allowed only a couple of months to prepare ourselves for the coming void, but this was no time to cry in one's beard; this was the time for a drowning man to reach for that straw. The straw was a simple thing - recording.

We began a frantic race against time. "Beat the deadline!" You see, it is vital to our interests to be in a position to offer not merely half a dozen programs in a continuing series but as many as a year or two of one-a-week shows, in short, a minimum of between 52 and 104 weekly packages.

Guy Lombardo and his crew sweated it out with us. We had them over at a New York recording studio virtually day and night. Occasionally we would take half an hour off to eat at a nearby restaurant, but mostly we had food brought in. Sofas and chairs served for cat-naps. On one day alone we started and finished four - count 'em - half-hour shows, and even David Ross, our Lombardo Show narrator, who is nothing if not calm, burst out with a wild yelfthat spelled out B-R-A-V-O!

Make no mistake about it, this was not merely a battle for the almighty dollar. This was a challenge to American genius, the American type of espirit-de-corps. The idea of a race against a little day on the calendar whetted our collective appetites; as in the late war, it's the blueprints that win the battles. Our blueprints worked, and we won the battle.

We produced enough in the series to give us a respectable backlog and an assurance that our sales force could go out and sell Lombardo to the hilt, which they did.

Although production was stepped up almost beyond human endurance, one wouldn't know it on hearing the programs.

Our producers, writers and directors worked night and day. Worked with Lombardo vocalists Don Rodney and Kennv Gardner . . . with music publishers on advance hit tunes, with Lombardo arrangers on tunes not to be released until late in 1948. The results: a series of radio programs that sets a new high in quality.

But Lombardo and Ziv notwithstanding, it could only have been done with discs.
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STEEL STYLUS SPECIFICATIONS - Stahlnadeln ???

By C. J. LeBel, Vice President - AUDIO DEVICES, Inc.

In the May issue we presented for the first time complete dimensional data on our cutting styli and on sapphire reproducing styli. We intentionally omitted data on steel reproducing points, for lack of space for the necessary explanation.

The method of producing the tip curvature of a steel needle is entirely different from that employed with sapphire. It is possible to grind and lap the gem tip to radius with diamond dust, with exact predetermination of the dimension and shape. The surface is exceedingly smooth for a diamond lap working on an extremely hard material can make a very fine finish.

Because of the low cost of a steel needle, this individual lapping is not possible. Instead, mass production methods are used, of such nature that most but definitely not all of the product is satisfactory. Needles of correct dimension and shape of tip are selected by individual measurement in a high power projection microscope (a "shadow-graph"). The projection screen carries a precision template on which are drawn limit curves.

Wie sie hergestellt werden

The following procedure is used. High carbon steel wire is fed into a special machine, in which the tip is ground to a sharp point, and the shank is cut to length. A batch of several million of the needles is then heat treated for maximum usable hardness, producing a hard, rough blank. This is then tumbled with abrasive in a barrel or a leather bag. As the tumbling proceeds, the surface acquires a high polish and the sharp tip begins to round ofF.

Periodically, a handful are removed from the barrel and shadowgraphcd. When the average tip radius of the handful has reached the proper value, the entire batch is removed from the tumbling barrel and cleaned. If these were ordinary needles, they would then be packaged and shipped. They might even be marked "shadowgraphed" because of the test of a handful out of a million.

This process is not infallible. A considerable number of needles are made, with tip defects which would lead to distorted reproduction or to damaged grooves.
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Prüfen mit "shadowgraphing" - den Schatten ansehen

There is only one way that 100% good points can be shipped: by shadowgraphing l00% of the product. It is very important that the envelope be marked "100% Shadowgraphed". On the average, one needle in eight is rejected in shadowgraphing. Statistical experience indicates that in such a case the number of bad points which would be found in an envelope of uninspected needles, while averaging one in eight, might reach as high as one in three in any given package. Shadowgraphing then is valuable not for the good needles you receive, but for the bad needles you do not receive!
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Welche Fehler so erkannt werden

In the shadowgraphing process a needle may be rejected for any one of the following reasons:
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  • 1. Oversize point - Would cause poor tracking and distorted reproduction.
  • 2. Under size pomt - Would cause poor tracking and distorted reproduction. In many cases would damage a lacquer groove.
  • 3. Flat e?id - In most cases would damage both a lacquer groove and a high quality phonograph record.
  • 4. Split points - Would damage any record they played.
  • 5. Broken points - Would ruin any record they played, lacquer or pressing.
  • 6. Hooded points - Very likely to ruin any record they played, also very likely to cause poor tracking and distorted reproduction.

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Wenn alles gut ist

A few typical rejects are shown in Fig. 2. It is evident that the owner of a good record library must be as careful with his needle as is the user of lacquer discs.

Incidentally, in a properly designed shadowgraph the point rolls as it goes through the machine, so that the tip is inspected from every angle. Otherwise, a diagonal flat might not be detected, for it is generally visible from one direction and invisible from another.

Inspected and approved needles then go through a machine which sprays red and yellow lacquer on the shanks. They are then packaged and shipped.
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Audio's "Chip -Chaser" Boon To Recordists With Thread Worries
(Der Schmutz und Span- Abstreifer)

Probably one ot the most ingenious devices ever produced in the recording industry was developed by Audio Devices, Inc. Next to the correct choice of recording disc and styli, this one gadget can do more to prevent a bad recording than any other single instrument. That gadget is the Audiodisc Chip-Chaser.

The Chip-Chaser does exactly what its name implies - it chases the thread cut from the record away from the cutting head and winds it around the turntable's center post, thus preventing thread tangles under the recording stylus.

Another outstanding characteristic of this device is that it will not scratch or in any way impair the recording.

The Chip-Chaser, which is actually an aluminum-backed strip of felt, is attached
to and supported by a cast-iron base placed at the side of the turntable. It conveniently tips up and out of the way when not in use and can be adjusted to fit any size turntable. No screws or bolts are needed.

Hier fehlen die August / September Ausgaben - komisch

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audio record - 1948 - 07 (Vol.4 - No.7) (October)


Hier wird ein ganz wichtiger Artikel in der November 1948 Ausgabe angekündigt, die neuen long-playing micro-groove discs von Columbia Record's. Leider fehlt uns diese Ausgabe.

Ein Artikel über den Einfluß der Luftfeuchtigkeit auf Schallackplatten läßt Fragen offen.

Der Rest dieser Ausgabe ist Füllmaterial.
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Outstanding Feature Article on Columbia's Long-Playing Record

In the November issue of Audio Record, we will feature an outstanding article by one of Columbia Record's top engineers on their new long-playing micro-groove disc. You won't want to miss this account of one of the most revolutionary developments in the history of sound recording. All the facts surrounding the advent of the new 33 1/3 rpm recording system which cuts up to 300 grooves per inch. Be sure and watch for it!

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Hold-the-Line Price Policy Announced by Audio Devices
(keine Preiserhöhung wegen der Aluminium-Preise)

According to a statement recently released by William C. Speed, President of Audio Devices, the increased cost of aluminum, which went into effect on September 1st, will not result in higher prices for Audiodiscs.

"We shall make every effort," Mr. Speed related, "to absorb this new aluminum price raise, and thus continue our prices at the present level. Our calculations indicate that with some improved efficiency, now under way, and continued large volume production, we shall be successful in this hold-the-price effort."

In their ten year history. Audio Devices found it necessary to raise prices only once and that was in January, 1947 when, after years of increasing labor and material costs, the price of aluminum shot up 50%. But even then their average increase in disc prices was only 32%.
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Nur ein Absatz aus :
Radio at Baylor University

In radio acting - audition discs are cut only at the end of the course, although
portions of dramatic productions are recorded both on disc and wire throughout the term. The students grasp the finer points of radio acting by actually hearing
themselves and others in a program. Also, the great dramas of the networks are recorded off the air and used as illustrations throughout the course. For this work the 16" Audiodisc is employed, at 33 1/3 rpm.

(The quality and fineness of audiodiscs make them ideal for this work. These professional programs are also played to survey classes as representative of the types of programs on the air today) .
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  • Anmerkung : Für Hörspiele bei den Profis und im Rundfunk wurden damals bereits seit langem die 16" Platten mit 33 1/3 rpm genutzt. (aber noch mit der dicken 78er Nadel) Das waren dann fast 30 Minuten Aufnahmezeit.

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OVERCOMING HUMIDITY EFFECTS

By C. J. LeBel, Vice President - AUDIO DEVICES, Inc.

One of the most serious problems faced by the recording disc industry, since the first lacquer coated disc was produced, is well summed up in the trite old saying - "It isn't the heat, it's the humidity."

For humid conditions in the factories have frequently held up production during the summer months. It is also true that a disc which has absorbed too much moisture would make a poor recording . The noise level would increase progressively while recording and the cut would get greyer and greyer. In fact,
noise level increase of as much as 30db has been observed - solely due to excessively humid conditions. If the cutting stylus were lifted and cleaned and the cut restarted, it would begin as quiet as originally, then grey up again. This problem, in varying degrees, has affected the entire lacquer disc industry.

Air conditioning disc factories would naturally seem the answer. But this does not help during transportation and storage under adverse conditions. It is not usually realized that water vapor will even pass through most "waterproof" materials.

Moisture absorbed during the summer can produce bad effects months later, for it is released much more slowly than it is absorbed. At the same time, it should be remembered that a "summer formula" of less good qualities is valueless, for discs bought in summer may be used in fall or winter, when no excuses for poor performance would be accepted.
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Eine neue lacquer Mischung musste erforscht werden

In view of all this, the most logical solution was to formulate a recording lacquer which was basically the same as before, but in which the effect of moisture was minimized. It was necessary to avoid the use of materials of unknown history and doubtful stability.

In doing this, our chemical formulator had a number of tools available. He had a
large weather room in which discs could be stored and recorded. The humidity and temperature controls of this room could be set to maintain 90°F., 90% relative humidity - holding the worst summer condiions 24 hours a day.

He had data on the previous performance in the field. As we have used serial
numbers since the start of production in 1939, this made available an immense stockpile of information. In fact, we are now more than ever, convinced that it is impossible to run a good system of quality control without such serial numbering.

The first step was the substitution of materials in the same family as the material being replaced. Some changes were suggested on chemical grounds: replacement of short chain (kleine Produktionseinheiten) by long (größere Mengen in einem Lot, for example. Each change involved several tests, for sometimes the proportion had to be changed at the same time. There was also some study of purer grades of material. This is an exceedingly complex subject, because tests for organic impurities are specific in nature, and you need to know what you are looking for before you start. Ordinary measurements of physical properties, such as specific gravity, refractive index, etc., are not apt to be very informative when the impurity is present to the extent of only 0,1%. Spectrophotometric methods are useful only under certain limited conditions.

Der Test der neuen "formula"

The next step was the substitution of material taken from other groups listed in
our previous studies as having good stability. Our biggest improvement, the one which finally brought success to the research, came from one such change.

It was found necessary to test each proposed ingredient as a part of the complete formula - no short cuts were possible. This complicated the testing procedure, for when say 15 out of 20 ingredients have varying degrees of moisture sensitivity, a change in one will effect an improvement which is hard to detect. When we had narrowed the work down to 3 sensitive ingredients, the work proceeded very rapidly, so that as the spring of 1948 approached we knew we had a lacquer of superior reliability.

Countless tests in our "weather room" show that the improved AUDIODISC is remarkably resistant to moisture absorption. Discs subjected to a temperature of 90° at 80 to 90% humidity for many weeks show no increase in noise level while recording. Ordinary discs, under the same conditions, show a noise level increase of from 15 to 25 db.

Perhaps the best proof of the value of this long research program has come in the summer just concluded - one of the most humid on record. For the first time in many years our factory and customers were able to run with no interruptions from the weather, with a product which recorded as well on the hottest and dampest day as it would have on a crisp fall or winter day.
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Sounds (Recorded) In The Night

Just to make positively sure thst all sounds on the RIP LAWSON, ADVENTURER! recorded show are authentic, producer James Allen (throwing hand cue in background) of Soundscript Productions, Hollywood, takes his cast right out into the street for a busy street sequence on one of the programs. The sound man though on this show must be quick with the records for jet-propelled planes, atomic bombs and many other scientific gadgets are all integral parts of the popular recorded juvenile thriller.

audio record - 1948 - 08 (Vol.4 - No.8) (November fehlt)

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  • Anmerkung : In dieser Ausgabe wurde also die Konzeption mit den Spezifikationen der ganz neuen 33er Vinyl LP von Columbia Records vorgestellt - aber leider haben wir diese Ausgabe nicht.

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audio record - 1948 - 09 (Vol.4 - No.9) (December)


Die New Yorker Philhamoniker geben jungen Talenten eine Chance.

Es geht in dieser Ausgabe um die Wiedergabqualität in den Sendern, mit der neuen LP wie auch mit der 78er Schallplatte.

Und dann wird es weltanschaulich, denn mit dem "Institut für Demokratie- Ausbildung" kann ich zum Beispiel nichts anfangen.
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N.Y. Philharmonic Symphony Program Offers High School Students Special "Week End With Music"

Voice Recordings Help Judges Make Final Selection of Musically Talented Students

The New York Philharmonic Symphony program, broadcast every Sunday afternoon over CBS stations, offers an unusual musical opportunity for talented high school students all over the country.

Every week, three students arc given a two day trip to New York City, including the "rounds" of the finest operas, ballets, musical theatres, and concert halls - as guests of the Standard Oil Company (New Jersey), sponsor of the Philharmonic broadcasts. These fortunate and talented students are given an opportunity to meet some of the most celebrated artists of our time, and their week-end of exciting behind-the-scenes adventures in New-York's musical life is climaxed by an "on the air" interview with Mr. Deems Taylor, noted composer and commentator. This interview is a 10-minute feature of the New York Philharmonic Symphony broadcasts, giving America's most talented musical students an opportunity to tell the vast CBS radio audience about the high points in their "Week End With Music," and about their own musical experiences and accomplishments.

The "Week End With Music" National Advisory Board has adopted the following plan for the nomination and selection of the student participants in the program. Any student, 16 years of age or over, enrolled in the 10th, 11th, or 12th grades of any U.S. public, private, or parochial (was ist das ???) high school is eligible.

Ganz Amerika kann mitmachen

Each high school in the United States is invited to nominate the student or students who are best qualified to appear on this program. After reviewing
the official Nomination Forms sent in by the school principals, the Board selects a group of candidates - with the advice and assistance of the experienced Scholastic Awards staff of "Scholastic Magazine."

The chosen candidates are then requested to visit their nearest CBS or other local
radio station for a voice recording. These recordings are submitted to the National Advisory Board to help in determining the final selection of the students. This phase of the selection helps the judges to decide on those students whose "voice personality" will assure maximum interests in the broadcasts. As it is obviously impractical for the judges to hold personal interviews with each candidate, the voice recordings provide a very effective substitute.

Any high school principals who are not already familiar with this "Week End With Music" program, can obtain nomination forms and complete details by writing to the National Advisory Board, "Week End With Music," 48.S Madison Avenue.
New York 22. N. Y.
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RADIO'S No.1 PROBLEM
(Das größte Problem eines Senders : Qualität)

by William C. Speed, President - Audio Devices, Inc.

As competition begins to stiffen between broadcasters, managers naturally turn a watchful eye on unnecessary expenditures. Yet, at the same time, it is in their own interests, as well as the interest of their sponsors, to maintain or
increase their listening audience. The obvious conflict between these two factors - maximum operating economy and audience appeal - is probably the basic cause of radio's No. 1 problem. For when "economy" is earned to the point where it affects the listening pleasure of a program - it ceases to be economical. Worse yet, it not only cuts down the listening audience - it may reflect unfavorably on the broadcasting industry as a whole.

Any normally critical listener today knows that the general trend of program
quality (as far as fidelity and easy listening are concerned) is definitely not upward. In fact many specific instances could be cited where transcribed program material in particular is far from satisfactory. This situation is doubly unfortunate - and doubly questionable - when we consider these facts. A broadcast stations transmitting equipment (die Sendeanlagen) represents an investment of several hundred thousand dollars and is fully capable of sending out fine, distortion-free programs. The sponsor invests perhaps hundreds of thousands of dollars in obtaining the finest talent and program material.
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Wenn nur auf billig (economy) gesehen wird

But somewhere along the line, the quality of the entire program has been sacrificed in the name of economy.

This, of course, is no news to the station engineers. They know where the trouble
lies, but are not in a position to do anything about it - for they do not hold the purse strings. No engineer, for example, likes to use worn out music recordings - to see appropriations for transcription pickup heads and good points become tighter and tighter - or to have to use the same so-called permanent point pickup day after day interchangeably on shellac pressings, lacquer and vinyls. Yet it too often has to be done.

Nor does the engineer like to use cheap wire recorders to delay a top quality program which cost a small fortune to produce. Because a good tape machine, costing around $3,000, can do an unusually fine job, it is too often the custom to use any tape on any machine with any bias, ignoring the end result - listening discomfort!

Economy-minded studio executives may say - "After all, what difference does it make. The vast majority of radio sets are miniatures and you can't tell the difference anyway." The fallacy of such thinking is obvious to the engineer. In the first place, it simply isn't true. Distortion added to distortion spells listener discontent even if he doesn't know just why. Moreover, it's the big set owners who often represent the highest purchasing power in a community - and they will unconsciously dial over to a "more agreeable" station. No broadcaster can afford to economize on his recordings if it means compromise with fidelity. It's
not fair to the artists, the sponsors, the engineers, or to the public.

Sie wissen es alle, worauf es ankommt

All broadcasters know that recording is a most important link in program presentation. They also know that high quality recording equipment is available - equipment that represents but a small percentage of the total station investment. But do they realize how seriously a poor quality recording can affect their listening audience? If they don't, the problem is simply one of education. If they do - and still insist on "cutting corners" to cut costs, - they must recognize that they will eventually be cut ting down their own income. There's no future in that.

To some of you, this may seem like an unfounded complaint. It's not. Here's a
typical example. Not long ago, while traveling through the midwest, I called on the chief engineer of a station just recently on the air. I was shown a beautiful new 10kW transmitter - a splendidly treated studio - excellent and expensive audio input equipment. By this time, I expected to see equalla modern and excellent recording apparatus. But no - here was economy. Two wire recorders costing less than $150 each! Later, I checked with many of the local listeners. The general opinion was that a lot of this station's programs "didn't sound so good."

We are all in this radio broadcast business together. Set sales mean more listeners, improved transcribed shows mean more listeners, distortion free recordings mean more listeners. Radio's economic health depends on more listeners. These all important listeners cannot be held with poor programs whether poor in material or ruined with poor fidelity.
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  • Anmerkung : Als ich 1965 als besonders junger aber aufmerksamer Hilfsvorführer in einem großen Wiesbadener Kino (mit 4-Kanal Cinemascope Magnetton) gearbeitet hatte, fiel mir auf, daß einer der 4 Klangfilm Kinoverstärker mit dem Zeiger weit im roten Bereich angekommen war. Der Anodenstrom der Endstufe war stark abgesackt (was ich aber erst viel viel später gelernt hatte). Der Vorfüher sagte aber nur, das geht noch, wir haben im Moment keine Ersatzröhren (das waren die bekannten dicken EL34). Der Chef hat keine bestellt, also mußte es so gehen. So war das halt damals auch bei uns.

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REPRODUCTION QUALITY GETS "PSYCHOANALYZED" AT ROCHESTER FALL MEETING

C. J. LeBel, Vice President of AUDIO DEVICES, INC., Presents Paper on "Psycho-Acoustics"

The topic of high quality reproduction was attacked from a new viewpoint at the RMA Rochester Fall Meeting on November 10 1948 in Rochester, New York. This forum where radio set designers discuss their problems included a symposium on "What Constitutes High Fidelity," with the following speakers: Messrs. Harvey Fletcher of Bell Telephone Laboratories, John K. Hilliard of Altec-Lansing Corp., and C. J. LeBel of Audio Devices. All three speakers stayed well away from that badly abused term "high fidelity," concentrating instead on the more significant problem of practical home reproduction.
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  • Anmerkung : Diese Diskussion bzw. dieser Vortrag des Vizepräsidenten eines Schallplatten Herstellers war natürlich recht einseitig und zukunftsblind. Denn die Magnetophon-Verfechter von Ampex Inc. und Bing Crosby Enterprises waren zur Diskussion nicht eingeladen.
    So konnte Mr. LeBel wieder mal behaupten, die lacquer disc, also die Schallplatte (aus seinem Haus natürlich), sei das beste verfügbare Qualitäts-Aufnahmesystem, das es jetzt und in Zukunft gäbe. Wie er hier die "High Fidelity" und die FM-Sendequalität herunter redet, ist schon traurig. Es scheint seine Felle mit der lukrativen lacquer Produktion davon schwimmen zu sehen - zurecht. Und sein hauseigenes "audiotape" Magnetband war offensichtlich immer noch nicht verkaufsreif bzw. fertig.

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Hifi sei eine Herausforderung, die den Hörer ermüdet

The subject of Mr. LeBel's talk, "Psycho-Acoustic Aspects of Higher Quality Reproduction," was admittedly a challenging one (zugegebener Maßen eine Herausforderung). For it is a subject which seems to have been avoided, intentionally or otherwise, by all too many of the country's radio set designers.

In his talk, Mr. LeBel applied scientific principles in a frank appraisal of the everpresent but seldom recognized problem of listening fatigue - what causes it, how to measure it, and what can be done to minimize it.

The quality of sound reproduction which is considered as "acceptable" to the average radio listener is a far cry from the sound quality that assures easy listening. And in designing to such minimum standards, radio and phonograph manufacturer are inadvertently limiting the use of their product. For when the listener gets tired, he simply turns off the set - without realizing why he has ceased to enjoy the program. The cause is not immediately apparent for the reason, that listening fatigue does not occur in the ear itself, but in the understanding centers of the brain.

According to Mr. LeBel, experienced merchandisers believe, that the reproduction quality of a radio, phonograph, or hearing aid has a definite effect on product sales, as well as on the extent of their use. Certain particularly successful manufacturers have had designs which consistently have been less fatiguing than competitive designs in a comparable price class. The inexperienced listener, who never heard of "psycho-acoustics," expresses his appreciation for sound quality of reduced fatigue factor by such expressions as: "It sounds very natural," "The announcer seems right here in the room," and "This is very easy to listen to."

In the hearing aid field, it has been demonstrated, that a drastic reduction in fatigue effect, with no visible change in the instrument, doubled sales within a period of months. The listener response to a hearing aid, however, is more positive than to a radio set, since the former must be used twelve to sixteen hours a day - and it cannot always be turned off when the listener becomes fatigued.
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Eine Menge Gründe für diese Ermüdung

There are many factors that contribute to listening fatigue. Mr. LeBel listed extraneous "noise" as the worst offender, followed by harmonic and intermodulation distortion, artificially peaked loudspeaker response, and inadequate frequency response. As to the practice of slightly attenuating high frequencies, he stated that this was an effective interim way of rendering
slightly distorted wide band reproduction more palatable.

He estimates that while only 50% of the listeners would be satisfied to have available an upper cutoff frequency of 5Kc, 90% would be satisfied with 8Kc, and 99% with 10Kc. This, of course, assumes a system relatively free from fatigue factors - and without distortion or attenuation in the upper frequencies. It also recognizes that unwanted high frequencies could be removed by a tone control, whereas insufficient high frequencies to begin with, could not be later increased in bandwidth.

With reference to the recording aspects of the problem, Mr. LeBel stated that lacquer disc recording quality has, for the past 10 years, been more than adequate to meet the demands of the most critical ear with minimum listener fatigue. Much improvement, however, is still called for in improved consistency of manufacturing quality of higher quality pressings, and the improvement of amplifier circuits and speaker designs of reproducing equipment in the medium price radio field.

Mr. LeBel summarized his remarks by saying that "the typical set engineer is very wrong in thinking that the auditory system is easy to deceive, and that perpetrating an acoustic fraud upon it will have no repercussions. The auditory system is inarticulate, not uncritical. Whereas the eye rebels very fast at unsatisfactory conditions, the ear is slow to anger. Even when very
angry, it does not directly reveal the cause of its rage. Yet, in the end, it enforces its desires surprisingly well. Every time a listener yawns and turns off his set his ear has won a victory."

I.D.E. OFFERS NEW SERIES OF TRANSCRIBED DRAMAS

Top-Flight Artists and Authors give "STORIES TO REMEMBER"
Outstanding Audience Appeal


The "Institute for Democratic Educaition" has recently completed thirteen new 15 minute recordings, in a series entitled "Stories to Remember." This is the 12th presentation of I.D.E.'s famous "Lest We Forget" series (Erinnern wir uns.), which has been aired by leading independent and network stations from coast to coast.

"Stories to Remember" feature such outstanding artists as Raymond Massey, Geraldine Fitzgerald, Melvyn Douglas, Vera Zorina, Alan Baxter, Ralph Bellamy, Bambi Lynn, and Jay Jostyn, in radio adaptations of stirring, down-to-earth stories by such well-known authors as B. J. Chute, MacKinlay Kantor, Dorothy Canfield Fisher, Irwin Shaw and Carl Click.

These widely read works have been adapted for radio by ace script writers Sigmund Miller, Milton Wayne, Jack Bentkover and Harold Franklin. All programs were produced by Harold Franklin, program director of the Institute, under the skillful direction of Earle McGill.

Recordings were made at Columbia Records, Inc., in New York, on 17 1/4" master AUDIODISCS at 33 1/3 rpm. The initial production includes 600 16-inch Vinylite pressings of each of the 13 programs. Additional pressings will be made as required, to keep pace with the demand.

This new series is offered free of charge to the nation's radio stations and networks as a public service, to help remind all Americans that prejudice and discrimination have no place in our truly American way of life.

Mr. Franklin states that, as in the past, the new "Stories to Remember" recordings will be made available to schools and colleges as soon as the radio broadcasts have been completed. I.D.E.'s previous series, "THE AMERICAN DREAM," is currently being prepared for special release to schools and colleges as an audio-education aid. For this purpose, it is planned to follow the procedure used so successfully by many radio stations in broadcasting these programs. The 13-minute transcriptions were followed by a 15 minute live panel discussion, in which prominent local citizens expressed their opinions, with particular reference to local problems and conditions. These panel discussions were recorded by the radio stations, and it is planned to include them on the reverse side of each of the "AMERICAN DREAM" pressings.

Since the Institute is a non-profit organization, devoted to the improvement of human relations, these discs are being offered for school use at cost. The thirteen recordings in previous series, together with a teachers' handbook, can be obtained complete for $l5.oo by writing direct to the Institute for Democratic Education.

The use of top-flight talent - artists, authors, scripters, and directors - has always characterized the I.D.E. productions, and has contributed largely to their outstanding success and audience appeal. Last year's series, for example, won a special award in Variety's annual Showmanagement competition - received another first award at Ohio State University's 18th Institute for Education by Radio - and was honored by a Citation of Distinguished Merit from the National Conference of Christians and Jews.

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