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Im Februar 1964 bekam man noch den 1963er Herbst Prospekt

Und jetzt wurde es sogar richtig bunt, also nicht nur zweifarbig. Der Wettbewerb wurde härter, es kamen immer mehr kleine und größere Firmenauf den Markt, die sich bei Scott, Fisher, Radishack und Heathkit ein Stück von dem offensichtlich lukrativen Kuchen sichern wollten.

Und ab jetzt waren es aufwendige "The Fisher Handbook"s mit allem Drum und Dran. Wir dürfen nicht vergessen, für einen Amerikaner gab es 1964 fast nur soetwas wie unsere damaligen Neckermann- und Quelle Kataloge zum Beispiel von Sears, einem der größten Versandhändler.

Beratung war da einfach nicht möglich, der nächste Shop war "meilenweit" entfernt. Wenn ich in den USA von "meilenweit" spreche, dann sind das 200 Meilen oder noch mehr, also 300 bis 400 Kilometer, um in ein Hifi-Studio zu kommen.

So gab es in jedem Magazin oder Fachzeitschrift kleine Abreißkarten
zum Anfordern von Unterlagen und darin musste alles drin sein, auch, wie zum Beispiel Stereo auf UKW (FM) funktioniert und daß es das bei AM (Mittelwelle) einfach nicht gibt.

Ach und noch etwas. Wie damals bei unserer ach so tollen Bundespost waren auch in USA Ferngespräche (sogenannte "long distance calls") richtig teuer. AT&T hatte ein quasi Monopol wie die Bundespost und das hatten sie weidlich umgesetzt (andere nannten das auch "Ausnutzen").

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The Fisher Handbook February 1964
"THE FISHER TRADITION"

If a cross section of serious music lovers were asked to list their requirements for a theoretically 'ideal' manufacturer of high-fidelity equipment, the chances are they would reply with a fairly accurate description of the Fisher Radio Corporation.

They would undoubtedly want the head of the company to be a devoted music lover himself, preferably a trained musician, and most certainly an avid record collector. Avery Fisher is all three—chamber music enthusiast, violinist, and owner of one of the country's major record collections as well as an unusually rare library of chamber music.

They would want the company to be deeply aware of every problem faced by the discriminating home music listener, of every major and minor trend in high fidelity, of even the slightest new development in audio engineering, and to have vast experience in translating this awareness into the finest equipment.

Avery Fisher built his original high-quality radio and phonograph systems in 1937, as much for himself as for his handful of knowledgeable patrons, at a time when 'high fidelity' was strictly professional jargon and natural-sounding equipment designed specifically for the home desperately scarce. Since then, he and the Fisher Radio Corporation have been responsible for more engineering 'firsts' in high fidelity than all other companies together. (See complete list of Fisher Firsts on inside back cover.)

Today, in the age of stereo, Fisher components built in 1937 are still in use — and the 1963 Fisher components are again considered by engineers and musicians alike to be the finest available in their respective categories.

One could draw many other parallels between the music lover's desires and "The Fisher Tradition". The important thing, however, is that the Fisher Radio Corporation is as deeply steeped in music itself as in technical know-how and that each new Fisher component design, before it can go into production, must satisfy not only a staff of the most experienced audio and radio engineers to be found anywhere but also the ears of a man who knows what a real violin sounds like.

Since those early beginnings more than 25 years ago, some of the world's most prominent people — heads of state, royalty, leaders of industry and of the sciences and professions—have joined the roster of Fisher owners. Throughout the world, they represent the truest index to the meaning and worth of the Fisher brand name — the international synonym for high-quality sound reproduction.

None of this, however, gives Avery Fisher nearly as much satisfaction as the fact that many of today's greatest musical artists choose Fisher equipment to hear their own recordings in their homes. The President of the Fisher Radio Corporation considers himself to be the firm's most demanding patron and he is pleased that his standards meet the most advanced musical tastes throughout the world.

What is stereo ?

Left-hand and right-hand information are mixed together in a single 'channel,' thus losing their identity by the time the reproduced sound reaches the listener's ears.
Left-hand and right-hand information are directed into completely separate 'channels,' so that their identity is retained in the reproduced sound all the way up to the listener's left and right ears.

The stereophonic reproduction of sound in general and of music in particular, now called 'stereo' for short, is a subject of considerable complexity at the engineering level. There is no reason, however, why the average music lover and record collector should not easily and clearly understand what stereo means to him, what it has to offer in terms of living-room listening and how to get the most out of it.

The first thing that must be made clear is that stereo is not a new development which has somehow replaced an older technique known as high fidelity (or 'hi-fi').

Stereo is high fidelity — potentially the highest fidelity there is. 'High fidelity' means, and cannot be correctly interpreted to mean anything other than, a high degree of faithfulness. In the case of sound reproduction, the faithfulness is to the original, 'live' sound.

Stereo is today's most advanced technique for recreating with the highest possible degree of faithfulness the subjective experience of listening to live sound. Therefore any question like, "Are you buying a hi-fi or a stereo?" is utterly meaningless. This Handbook is about stereophonic high fidelity — or stereo hi-fi, if you prefer.

Stereo differs from the older methods of sound reproduction in that it recreates the space where the original sound occurred, as well as the other important
characteristics of the sound. Before the advent of stereo, great strides were made in reproducing timbre (the exact shades of tone color) and dynamic range (the contrasts between loud and soft), but the reproduction still lacked dimension — there was no distinction between left and right, up and down, front and back. These spatial characteristics can now be restored to the reproduction by means of the new stereo techniques, so that the reproduced sound retains not only its original quality and individuality but also its original acoustic environment: it has the elements of direction and depth.

Our ability to hear direction and depth is based on the simple fact that we have two ears. Anyone can convince himself of this basic phenomenon of nature by attempting to lead a normal life with one ear plugged for a few hours. Sounds become shallow and confused; there seems to be a strange lack of contact with audible 'reality'. Stereo is designed to satisfy our instinctive need for two-eared hearing and is thus the natural method of sound reproduction.

Let us consider an actual, live listening situation, such as a concert. The sounds that reach one's left ear are slightly different most of the time from those that reach the right ear. Instruments playing to the left of center are heard by the left ear a fraction of a second sooner than by the right ear; instruments to the right of center are heard sooner by the right ear.

The sound of instruments playing in dead center reaches both ears at exactly the same instant. These differences and similarities in arrival time enable us to distinguish the direction of each sound. The sounds reflected from the walls of the concert hall by reverberation reach one's ears slightly later than the direct sound, and this information is also sorted out in the same fashion by both left and right ear. Combined with the differences in loudness between near and far sounds, these directional 'echo' effects help us to judge the size of the concert hall, the distance of each instrument and all the other elements that contribute to the depth of the sound.

This is a somewhat oversimplified summary of how we hear sounds in space, but the important thing to remember is that the entire process is based on differences occurring simultaneously. Now, there can exist a difference only between two or more things—and that's precisely where monophonic reproduction in any form, was inadequate. It gave us only a single pattern of sound; just one spiral pattern of wiggles on a phonograph record, just one magnetic track on a recorded tape, just one optical track on a sound film, just one signal transmitted by a radio station.

It did not matter how many microphones were used to pick up the original sound; their outputs all ended up in one mixture in the same single channel. Nor did it matter how many loudspeakers the ultimate listener had; each loudspeaker was fed from the same single channel and each was in effect playing the same pattern of sound. No differences for the ear to sort out — therefore no spatial information.
Stereo, on the other hand, provides two or more channels of sound, kept distinct and separate throughout the entire process of reproduction. Not just two or more microphones, not just two or more loudspeakers, but two or more completely different patterns of sound.

As many as seven such separate channels have been used for special stereo applications, but in normal practice two channels have been found completely adequate and a spectacular improvement over one. Separate is the key word here — one could dramatize the principle by saying that one channel does not even know that the other exists until both emerge into the listening room. Then the listener's ears have a chance to perceive differences and interpret them as spatial information.

It is entirely incorrect to say that stereo provides "one channel for the left ear and one for the right ear." In listening to stereo, both ears hear both channels — all the time. But the two channels are different; and the left ear hears the left channel a little sooner than the right ear, the right ear hears the right channel a little sooner than the left ear — and if there are more channels (as there are in certain special installations), still further differentiation is possible. That's what produces the stereo effect.

It should also be clear that each channel in stereo must be of the highest possible quality if a real improvement in fidelity is to be achieved. Distortion, noise and other obstacles to high fidelity must be as carefully kept out of both channels as out of the single channel of mono-phonic days. In the final analysis, stereo has not changed the basic requirements of high-quality sound reproduction; it has merely multiplied them.

How is stereo recorded and broadcast?

Until approximately five years ago (Anmerkung: wir haben jetzt 1963), stereo was almost exclusively a tape recording technique. Two or more microphones were set up in front of or above the sound source, in positions experimentally determined by the recording engineers as the best possible for the particular room or hall and for the type of sound to be recorded. The sound picked up by each microphone was then separately recorded on one of the two or more parallel and simultaneous magnetic tracks of a single tape. All of the tracks started together and ended together on the same reel, but each track was in effect an independent tape recording of the sound 'heard' by a single microphone.

These parallel tracks could then be played back simultaneously, just as they had been recorded, each through a separate high-fidelity system terminating in a separate loudspeaker. The result was multi-channel (usually two-channel) stereo reproduction of the highest order, and this is still the method used today to make the original 'master' recording at a recording session.

Left-hand and right-hand information are kept separate throughout the recording process, on tape and on disc. The stereo pickups designed for playback of the 90° V-shaped groove have the ability to distinguish between left wall and right wall.
Left-hand and right-hand information are combined in a specially coded manner and transmitted as a single broadcast signal. The Multiplex receiver has the ability to decode the combined signal and reconstruct the original left-hand and right-hand information.

Until recently, however, it was difficult to make such stereo recordings available in many copies for commercial distribution. Methods were slowly developed to make tape copies available in quantity to owners of home-type, nonprofessional tape recorders, which have a slower tape speed than the studio recorders. Today these commercial stereo tapes are widely available in record stores and other
outlets, and they are very close in sound quality to the original master tape. The big problem that remained to be solved was to adapt stereo to the most widely used high-fidelity medium — the phonograph record.

The solution came in 1957 in the form of the Westrex system of stereo disc recording. This technique permits the recording of two separate channels on the two walls of a single V-shaped record groove. The two separate tracks of a stereo master tape can thus be easily re-recorded on a disc, or a two-channel original recording can be made directly on a master disc, even though the latter technique is, for a variety of reasons, out of the ordinary. The important thing is that a single record side with a single groove engraved on it can now hold two separate simultaneous recordings—for the left and right channels of two-channel stereophonic sound reproduction.

Pickups have been developed which can decipher the complex information in a stereo record groove, keep the two channels entirely separate and feed them to two separate playback systems. Furthermore, the same pickups can also play single-channel or monophonic records with even greater fidelity than conventional 'mono' pickups.

The complexity of the new stereophonic disc recording and playback system necessitated a few very minor compromises with fidelity in the first year or so of commercial practice. Today, however, the finest stereo discs and pickups bring an unprecedented degree of fidelity to sound reproduction in the home — provided the rest of the playback system is also of the highest quality.

The last medium to take advantage of stereophonic techniques was radio. Certain stations have been experimenting for a number of years with FM-AM stereo: broadcasting one channel on FM and the other on AM. These transmissions left a great deal to be desired, since the AM channel was invariably noisier and more distorted than the FM channel, creating imbalances that largely destroyed the stereo illusion.

The solution had to be pure FM stereo radio, which became a reality in the latter part of 1961 with the advent of Multiplex FM broadcasting. This new system uses only one FM transmitter to broadcast both channels; the two channels are combined in a predetermined and highly ingenious manner before transmission and are then separated and restored to their original patterns by the receiving equipment, just as though they had never been mixed in the first place. The latest FM-Multiplex receiving equipment has built-in facilities to accomplish this; earlier models require the addition of what is known as a Multiplex Adaptor.

What do I need?

There is a popular misconception that "you need two of everything for stereo." This may have been at least a partial truth in the days when none of the high-fidelity component manufacturers had a full line of stereo equipment on the market, so that the second channel had to be more or less a duplicate of the equipment one already owned. Today's stereo components are invariably of duplex design — two-channel amplifiers, FM tuners with built-in Multiplex, dual-cable pickup arms and so on.

They are not nearly as costly as two single-channel components of equivalent quality. Integrated design eliminates many unnecessary duplications and makes important savings possible. Loudspeakers remain the only item of which one still needs a pair, and even here there are ways to avoid doubling the mono budget.

Let us begin with the selection of the AMPLIFIER.

They are illustrated in the diagrams below.

Each component presents a single 'channel' for the signal to travel through.

If we regard a high-fidelity system as a sort of operational pipeline carrying information from the record groove or the radio antenna through the various components all the way to the loudspeaker, then the Amplifier is the central pumping station. It receives very weak currents from the various program sources and it builds up or 'amplifies' these currents until they are powerful enough to drive the loudspeaker or loudspeakers. Its output is regulated by the volume control and its maximum power is rated in watts.

Approximately 15 watts per channel is the rating where acceptable stereo amplifiers begin. Such an amplifier would be described as a 30-watt stereo amplifier or as a 'dual 15.' More power is required if the loudspeakers to be used are relatively difficult to drive (a factor which has nothing to do with their sound quality) or if the listening room is large or heavily draped and carpeted. The advice of a competent high-fidelity component salesman can be invaluable in making the correct choice.

Another function of the Amplifier is to compensate for tonal imbalances (too little bass, too strong high tones, and the like) in the program sources and to make these and other adjustments easily controllable by the listener. This is accomplished by means of various controls and switches, as is the selection of the program source itself.

The part of the amplifier incorporating these controls (as well as the volume control) is known as the 'front end' or Master Control section. In certain elaborate design, it is on a separate chassis by itself, apart from the main or power amplifier. Amplifiers that include the control section on the same chassis with the main amplifier are classified under the name of Control Amplifiers.
Feeding the front end of the amplifier are the various program sources or services — the Radio Tuner (FM or AM or FM-AM as the case may be), the Record Player and possibly a Tape Recorder.

The function of the tuner is to receive radio programs off the air and convert them to electrical signals that are suitable for amplification. Only FM programs are comparable, in fidelity and freedom from noise, to records or tape, and discriminating music lovers now tend to depend on them almost exclusively. The majority of important stations duplicate all their programs on FM.

The RECORD PLAYER can be either a record changer with a pickup cartridge or a single-play turntable with separately mounted pickup arm and cartridge. The stylus (or, less correctly, 'needle') of the cartridge traces the vibrations engraved in the record groove and translates them into tiny electric currents, to be fed to the front end of the amplifier. The function of the remaining parts of the record player is merely to rotate the record evenly and steadily, and to guide the cartridge in a correct position over the record surface. The absence of vibration, noise, extraneous resonances, and interference with steady rotation is the major criterion of quality here. Good record players "should be seen and not heard" — except for the output of the cartridge.

Except for the loudspeakers, each component incorporates two 'channels,' for the left and right signals, respectively. Therefore only one more component is required than in a monophonic system.

About the speakers

The output side of the amplifier, where the current has been built up to sufficient strength to do physical work, is connected to the loudspeaker. The function of the Loudspeaker is to translate the electrical signals fed to it by the amplifier into mechanical vibrations (similar to the rapid motions of a piston), thus creating audible sound waves in the listening room. Advanced high-fidelity loudspeakers are, more properly stated, loudspeaker systems, consisting of several individual loudspeakers — a heavy one (woofer) for the very hard-working low tones; a small and very precise one (tweeter) for the delicate upper tones; and in some cases a medium-sized one for the middle range.

Stereo requires the use of two separate loudspeaker systems, each connected to one of the two channels of the stereo amplifier. They should be placed the proper distance apart, which may be as little as 4 feet or as much as 15 feet, depending on the size and shape of the listening room. Having the speaker systems too close together destroys the stereo effect; placing them too far apart creates an acoustic 'hole in the middle.' In a very large room, where the speakers must be very widely spaced to cover the listening area, a third speaker system may be added in the center, receiving the mixed outputs of both channels.

Conversely, in a small room, a satisfactory stereo illusion can be created by feeding both channels into a single high-quality speaker system in a center location and connecting two smaller 'outrigger' or wide-surround systems (covering the middle and high tones only), to the left and right channels, respectively. Again, the advice of an expert salesman can be of great help in making the right selection.

In general, the loudspeaker systems selected for stereo should be small enough so that they can be freely moved to find their best possible location. Stereo has forced into eclipse the monster speaker systems of monophonic days; two of the latter are too much for the average home, and the more sophisticated smaller designs of the stereo era do just as well, often better. One should invest as much of the stereo budget as possible in the very best loudspeaker systems one can afford, because there is a tremendous difference in sound quality between good, better and best in the loudspeaker field. Amplifiers, tuners, cartridges and other components are getting close to technical perfection today, but the loudspeaker still depends very much on the kind of inspired design that is fifty percent science and fifty percent art. It is advisable to listen very carefully before buying.

Where available space for a complete stereo component system is limited, or where it is desired to acquire the necessary components in the most economical form, without sacrifice of basic quality, the solution may well be a relatively new type of component — the Stereo Receiver. It combines dual radio, dual master controls and dual amplifiers on a single compact chassis, requiring only the connection of two loudspeaker systems and a record player for a complete, ready-to-play stereo installation.

There are available three basic combinations of the components just discussed for assembling a complete custom stereo system, including both phonograph and radio.
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How to decorate your home with music

You can conceal or display your stereo components in your listening room and achieve a handsome installation either way. With their designer-styled front panels and fine furniture-wood cabinets, Fisher tuners, amplifiers and receivers can even be displayed on an open shelf, if you so desire. Fisher loudspeakers are eye-flattering pieces of furniture in themselves, so you may want to leave them out in the open, too.

On the other hand, there is no limit to the ways you can hide a stereo installation, if you prefer it that way. Breakfronts, sideboards, drawers, closets, wall cabinets, bookcases and unused old pieces from your attic can make perfect housings for stereo. Your imagination can stand you in good stead here. On the next few pages, you will see outstanding examples of how others have solved their installation problems.

A little ingenuity goes a long way !

We have had the privilege of supplying Fisher instruments for special installations in fine homes throughout the world. Our twenty-five years of experience in this field is so vast and varied as to be truly without equal.

The benefit of that experience is yours to draw upon when planning a stereo installation. On these pages we are showing for your guidance and inspiration photographs of actual installations in the homes of Fisher owners.

They were selected as most typical and they cover a great variety of arrangements. Every installation reflects careful planning and the I most efficient and convenient utilization of the available space. Ample ventilation is provided in every case, to assure a long, trouble-free life for the equipment.

When you plan your stereo installation, always remember two basic requirements:

Electronic components must have adequate ventilation and loudspeakers must be properly placed for good stereo effect.

Never have a tuner, amplifier or receiver in a completely enclosed space. There must be access to the cooler outside air, preferably through substantial openings, for proper air flow.

Never place stereo loudspeakers less than four feet or more than 15 feet apart, nor position them in such a way that one is much closer to the listening area than the other.
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Otherwise, there is no limit to the number of ways you can exercise your ingenuity in placing your stereo components. Should you need help in planning the installation of your stereo system, the services of our Mr. Richard Hamilton are available to you. Simply send us (either through your dealer or directly) a rough sketch of your room layout, the dimensions of the space available for installation of the electronic equipment, and your choice or preference of the FISHER models in the system planned. Mr. Hamilton will advise you on how to make the most effective use of the cabinet space as well as the room acoustics.
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How to keep components in their place

You can plan a custom stereo installation to suit every room dimension, every room acoustic. Should the general features of your room suggest the use of completely exposed components, rather than built-ins, you can select from three basic cabinet finishes: Walnut, Mahogany, or Metal Cabinet in simulated leather. Most of the new 1963 FISHER components are designed to accommodate any of these three basic cabinet styles.

Introducing THE FISHER 1963 STEREO COMPONENTS

The unprecedented comprehensiveness of the new Fisher line of components permits you to select precisely what you need and no more than you need. The more elaborate and costly Fisher components differ from the simpler models not in basic quality but merely in versatility and an extra margin of performance for special needs and particular situations.

The basic standard is the same for all Fisher components: distortion-free stereo reproduction with even the most demanding program material, coupled with unqualified durability in service.
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The totally integrated approach: simply add two speakers, for a complete stereo system.

Combine a Fisher stereo tuner and a Fisher stereo control amplifier on one chassis and the fabulous result is an integrated Fisher stereo receiver, with the over-all performance of a quality formerly obtainable only with separate components. The finest in stereo can now be enjoyed in the simplest of installations.

THE FISHER 500-C and 800-C

THE FISHER 500C
THE FISHER 800C

75-WATT STEREO MULTIPLEX RECEIVERS
These two new receivers are setting entirely new industry-standards of quality in performance, styling, and flexibility of operation. The most advanced design and electronic principles have been applied to these instruments by world-famous Fisher Engineering Laboratories. As a result, both FISHER Receivers contain many convenience features that have never been used in a receiver, regardless of price.

For the first time, the exclusive FISHER STEREO BEACON* has been incorporated in a receiver to provide maximum operating comfort. STEREO BEACON* instantly signals the presence of an FM Multiplex broadcast and automatically switches to the proper mode - stereo or mono. A meter has been included to permit pinpoint tuning accuracy.

THE FISHER 500C offen
THE FISHER 800C offen

The new GOLDEN SYNCHRODE* front-end affords far greater sensitivity, overload margin and rejection of spurious and image signals than previous designs. Low-noise triode stages are used for the mixer and oscillator, followed by four wideband IF stages and a wideband ratio detector utilizing two balanced germanium semiconductors. Three limiters (including the ratio detector) ensure a maximum degree of freedom from unwanted interference and noise.

The multiplex converter
is the superior time-division type utilizing two balanced 4-diode bridges and a 38-kc synchronous oscillator acting as an electronic switch. A newly developed 4 silicon diode switch in the STEREO BEACON * circuits now completely eliminates all clicks and pops from the loudspeakers during switching.

The AM tuner of the FISHER 800-C (not included in the FISHER 500-C) features a high-gain pentode RF-amplifier, a pentagrid converter and IF amplifier with variable bandwidth. A highly sensitive ferrite rod AM antenna is included with each FISHER 800-C receiver.

The audio control center
of these new FISHER receivers has operating features comparable to professional installations. Separate friction-lock bass and treble controls for each channel, high and low sharp-cutoff filters and a front-panel earphone jack are included. Tape Recorder circuits featuring the new FISHER DIRECT-TAPE-MONITOR* system permit monitoring while making a tape recording without losing the use of any audio control facilities on subsequent playback.

A new four-position Speaker Selector switch is provided, permitting these receivers to act as the control center for the main set of speakers as well as for remote speaker installations. The same switch permits you to silence both speaker systems for complete privacy when listening with earphones. For greatest operating convenience and simplicity, the separate Mode Selector and Input Selector switches normally found on stereo amplifiers are now combined in one single functional switch.

THE FISHER 400

THE FISHER 400

60-WATT FM STEREO MULTIPLEX RECEIVER
This new receiver combines a highly sensitive FM tuner, a time-division multiplex demodulator, and a 60-watt (IHF Standard) power amplifier with a full range of controls and features — all at a price even the economy-minded music lover can afford. No compromise was made in the essential design characteristics, in the quality of workmanship or in the rigorous test procedures and standards of the Fisher Engineering Laboratories. A new highly sensitive front-end employs three tuned circuits for increased selectivity and rejection of unwanted signals. The front-end is completely shielded and the tuning capacitor is fully enclosed. This is followed by three wideband IF stages, with two stages of limiting (including the ratio detector). The ratio detector utilizes a matched pair of germanium diodes and is linear over an extremely wide range. The time-division multiplex demodulator incorporates the STEREO BEAM* indicator and a Stereo Filter to eliminate background noise on weak multiplex signals. The STEREO BEAM * tube is also used as a tuning indicator.

THE FISHER 400 offen

The 400 includes all the most-wanted features, such as tape monitoring facilities, front-panel earphone jack with speaker silencing switch, Loudness Contour switch and a sharp-cutoff High Filter. Separate Bass and Treble controls, with the FISHER friction-lock system, are provided for each channel. Also included is the exclusive FISHER DIRECT TAPE MONITOR * system, which permits monitoring of tapes without sacrificing the use of some of the audio controls on subsequent playback. A single Selector switch combines all the functions normally incorporated in separate Input and Mode Selectors, thus greatly increasing the convenience and simplicity of operation. Other extras include a center channel output (for a separate amplifier), choice of Normal or Local antenna inputs to prevent overloading on strong local signals, and DC filaments on the low level audio input stages to reduce hum and noise to inaudible levels.
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* These two new FISHER receivers are identical (except for the AM tuner section and two-position AM bandwidth switch on the FISHER 800-C).
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Compact and easy-to-install, these world-famous Fisher Stereo Receivers provide grand-organ flexibility and versatility


OUTSTANDING FEATURES OF THE FISHER 500-C AND FISHER 800-C 75-WATT STEREO MULTIPLEX RECEIVERS.


• STEREO BEACON • instantly signals and automatically switches to stereo or mono operation, using a new silicon diode switch for completely silent operation. • Powerful 75-watt audio amplifier will drive the most inefficient speakers to full room volume. • New FISHER GOLDEN SYNCHRODE* front-end for noise-free FM reception, free of image or spurious signal interference. The FM front-end is the most sensitive ever designed for a receiver. • The FISHER DIRECT-TAPE-MONITOR system*. • CONTROLS for the FISHER 500-C: Speaker Selector (speaker 1, speaker 2, speaker 1 + 2, earphones), Bass, Treble, Balance, High Filter, Low Filter. MPX Filter, Tape Monitor, Loudness Contour, Tuning, Volume (AC OFF), Selector (tape head, phono mono, phono, STEREO, FM AUTOMATIC, FM STEREO, FM MONO. AUX-TAPE).
• CONTROLS for the FISHER 800-C: Speaker selector (SPEAKER 1, SPEAKER 2, SPEAKER 1 + 2, EARPHONES), Bass, Treble, Balance, High Filter, Low Filter, AM Bandwidth. (sharp, broad), Tape Monitor, Loudness Contour, Tuning, Selector (tape head, phono mono, phono stereo, fm automatic, fm stereo filter, fm mono, am, AUX-TAPE), Volume and AC OFF.
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TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF THE FISHER 500-C AND FISHER 800-C 75-WATT STEREO MULTIPLEX RECEIVERS.

• FM SECTION for the FISHER 500-C and the FISHER 800-C. Usable Sensitivity (IHF Standard) 1.8 microvolts.
• Sensitivity (20 db quieting with 72-ohm antenna) 0.6 microvolts. • Signal-to-Noise ratio (100% Modulation) 70 db.
• Selectivity (alternate channel) 60 db. • IF Rejection (at 100 Mc) 90 db. • Image Rejection (at 100 Mc) 65 db. • FM Harmonic Distortion (400 cps, 100% Modulation) 0.5%.
• FM Stereo Separation (at 1 Kc) 35 db. • Capture Ratio, 2.5 db. i Calibration Accuracy 0.2%. • Drift0.01%. • AM SECTION (FISHER 800-C only) : Sensitivity (for 2 watts output, at 1 Mc) 5 microvolts. • Selectivity (SHARP position, at 1 Mc) 55 db. • Image Rejection (at 1 Mc) 70 db. • IF Rejection (at 1 Mc) 80 db. • AMPLIFIER SECTION: Music Power (IHF Standard 75 watts total. • Harmonic Distortion (at 1 Kc and rated output) 0.5%. • RMS Power (0.7%. Harmonic Distortion at 1 Kc, both channels driven) 60 watts.
• IM Distortion (60 cps + 7 Kc, 4:1) 0.7% at 35 watts, each channel. • Frequency Response: Overall, 25-25,000 cps ± 1.5 db; Power Amplifier Section, 5-45,000 cps + 0, —2 db.
• Hum and Noise (High Level Input) 80 db below rated output.
• Channel Separation (at 1 Kc) 50 db. • Bass Controls (total variation at 50 cps) 23 db. • Treble Controls (total variation at 10 Kc) 23 db. • Low Filter (—3 db at 60 cps) 12 db per octave below 50 cps. • High Filter (—3 db at 5 Kc) 12 db per octave above 6 kc. • Input Sensitivity (for rated output) PHONO: 3.3 mv. TAPE HEAD: 2.5 mv. AUX: 230 mv.
• Power Requirements (105-120 volts, 50 to 60 cycle operation) 210 watts (at 10 watts output); 235 watts (full power). • CHASSIS DIMENSIONS: 17y2" wide, 5%" high, 13y2" deep. • WEIGHT: 500-C: 36y2 pounds; 800-C: 37 pounds.

OUTSTANDING FEATURES OF THE FISHER 400 60-WATT FM-STEREO-MULTIPLEX RECEIVER

. • Exclusive STEREO BEAM* instantly signals stereo multiplex programs. • Front-panel earphone jack permits one to listen to stereo or mono programs in complete privacy, without disturbing others in the same room. • Highly sensitive FM tuner assures clear reception of stations that are beyond the range of other tuners. Three tuned circuits in the front-end provide high degree of selectivity and freedom from IF and image interference.
• Single function Selector switch provides selection of stereo or mono programs and the input source, whether records, radio or tape. • FISHER DIRECT-TAPE-MONITOR* permits monitoring of tapes without sacrificing the use of the complete range of audio controls on subsequent playback. The Tape Monitor switch is used for monitoring and the AUX-TAPE position on the Selector switch is used for playback. • Center channel output. • Provisions for the use of a tape deck.
• SPACEXPANDER® jacks. • Choice of Phono input sensitivity to match any phono cartridge. • Two convenient AC outlets for connection of associated equipment. • Softly illuminated slide rule dial. • Flywheel tuning action. • Architectural brass-finish front panel. • CONTROLS: Speaker earphone selector switch. Bass, Treble, Selector (tape, phono-mono, PHONO-STEREO, FM-STEREO, FM-STEREO FILTER, FM-
mono, aux), Tape Monitor, High Filter, Loudness Contour. Tuning, Volume and AC OFF.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS OF THE FISHER 400 60-WATT FM-STEREO-MULTIPLEX RECEIVER • FM SECTION:

Usable sensitivity (IHF standard, 300-ohm antenna, 100% modulation) 1.8 microvolts. • Noise figure 3 db. • Signal-to-Noise-and-Hum ratio (100% modulation) better than 70 db.
• Selectivity (Alternate Channel) 60 db. • Image Rejection (at 100 Mc) 57 db.
• IF Rejection (at 100 Mc) 85 db.
• Spurious frequency Rejection better than 90 db.
• Capture Ratio (IHF) 2.5 db. • FM Harmonic Distortion (400 cps, 100% modulation) less than 0.5%.
• FM-Stereo Separation (at 1 Kc) 35 db. • Drift 0.01%.
• Calibration accuracy 0.2%.
• AMPLIFIER SECTION: Music Power (IHF Standard) 60 watts.
• Harmonic Distortion (at 1 Kc and rated output) 0.5%. * RMS Power (0.8% Harmonic Distortion at 1 Kc, both channels driven) 50 watts.
• IM Distortion (60 cps + Kc, 4:1) 0.8% at 52 watts, both channels.
• Frequency Response: Overall, 25-25,000 cps ± 1 db; Power Amplifier Section, 10-40,000 cps 0, —2 db.
• Hum and Noise (High Level Input) 80 db below rated output.
• Channel Separation (at 1 Kc) 50 db.
• Bass Controls (total variation at 50 cps) 22 db. • Treble Controls (total variation at 10 Kc) 22 db.
• High Filter (—3 db at 5 Kc) 12 db per octave above 6 Kc.
• Input Sensitivity (for 25 watts output per channel) PHONO LOW: 4.4 mv. PHONO HIGH: 14 mv. TAPE HEAD: 2.8 mv. AUX: 280 mv. TAPE MONITOR, Switch On: 1.15 v. Selector at AUX-Tape: 440 mv.
• Power Requirements (105-120 volts, 50 to 60 cycle operation) 160 watts (at 10 watts output) ; 200 watts (at full power output). • CHASSIS DIMENSIONS: 17%" x 534" x 13".
• WEIGHT: 3034 pounds. -  Patent Pending

Announcing the World's Foremost Wide-Band Stereo Multiplex Tuners

Several significant advancements in front-end circuitry, the application of the Time-Division system in the multiplex converter, and a wealth of new convenience features — these are some of the reasons why FISHER stereo multiplex tuners are today, as always, universally recognized as the finest in the world.

THE FISHER MF-300

REMOTE CONTROL FM-STEREO-MULTIPLEX TUNER.
Now you can select FM stations from your easy chair, while achieving exact center-of-channel tuning of absolute accuracy (exceeding even the most careful manual tuning)! Simply press a button on the Remote Control Unit, or its counterpart on the main control panel, the motor-driven TUNE-O-MATIC circuits take over. The TUNE-O-LITE dial pointer moves to the left or right, as desired, and stops at the precise point of maximum signal. The FISHER MF-300 is supplied with thirty feet of cable and the Remote Control Station Selector, Model RK-10. (See Page 25 for details.)

The Fisher MF-320 is an FM stereo tuner consisting of an MF-300 tuner and an RK-20 remote control receiver mounted in a walnut cabinet with a single integrated control panel.

THE FISHER RK-20*

WIRELESS REMOTE CONTROL TRANSMITTER-RECEIVER.
For those who seek the ultimate in convenience, without compromise in performance, the new FISHER RK-20 Transmitter-Receiver offers the widest possible range of comfort. By pressing the TUNE or VOLUME control button on the transmitter, tuning action and volume level can be controlled automatically.
.

THE FISHER R-200

AM-FM STEREO MULTIPLEX TUNER.
Everything about this magnificent AM and FM tuner is different, unusual and far superior to existing brands in its circuitry, construction, and sensitivity. The FM front-end incorporates the new FISHER GOLDEN SYNCHRODE design. STEREO BEACON* a Fisher exclusive, automatically indicates the presence of a stereo broadcast, and automatically switches to the proper mode of operation — stereo or mono. The AM section includes a tuned RF amplifier, followed by a converter and two IF amplifiers.

THE FISHER FM-50-B

FM-STEREO-MULTIPLEX TUNER.
All the elements essential for optimum reception of FM monophonic or Multiplex stereo broadcasts are available. In spite of its reasonable cost, nothing has been sacrificed to maintain the laboratory standards that distinguish all FISHER components.
OUTSTANDING FEATURES • STEREO BEAM* (FM-Stereo-Mul-tiplex and tuning indicator). • Three-Position Selector (mono, stereo, and stereo filter). • Sensitivity Control (ac off, normal, and distant). • Station Selector.

THE FISHER FM-100-B

FM-STEREO-MULTIPLEX TUNER.
This extremely sensitive instrument combines the finest wideband design with advanced Multiplex circuitry — features that are a 'must' for low-noise FM-Stereo reception of outstanding quality. It provides a degree of sensitivity never before possible in FM tuners in its moderate price range.
OUTSTANDING FEATURES • STEREO BEACON* Indicator and Automatic Switching System. • Tuning Meter. • Four-Position Mode Selector (mono, stereo, automatic, and stereo filter). • Exclusive IF muting circuit for stereo and mono. • Sensitivity Control (AC Off, Distant, Local). • Station Selector with Flywheel. • Dual Channel Level Controls and four output jacks on rear panel.

THE FISHER FM-200-B

FM-STEREO-MULTIPLEX TUNER.
Here is an instrument that is unquestionably the world's finest FM tuner intended specifically for home use. It comes within a hairbreadth of the professional-standard FM-1000 and achieves a degree of sensitivity once considered unattainable. Its ultra-advanced GOLDEN CASCODE front-end incorporates four tuned circuits and two of the new Nuvistor tubes plus 5 IF stages, 5 stages of limiting, and a wide-band ratio detector to achieve a high degree of noise suppression.
OUTSTANDING FEATURES • STEREO BEACON* and Auto matic Switching System. • Tuning Meter. • Exclusive IF muting circuit. • CONTROLS: Four-Position Mode Selector (mono, stereo-mono automatic, stereo filter, stereo), Variable Muting, Sensitivity Control (AC Off, Distant, Local), Station Selector with Automatic MicroTune AFC.

THE FISHER FM-1000

FM-STEREO-MULTIPLEX TUNER.
This professional quality FM tuner represents the sum total of FM engineering knowledge and experience. It is a masterpiece in design and circuitry, created for the audio connoisseur seeking the absolute ultimate in FM-Stereo tuners, regardless of cost. The tunable front-end, incorporating 4 tuned circuits and 2 Nuvistor tubes, achieves what appears to be the present world's record in usable sensitivity.
OUTSTANDING FEATURES • STEREO BEACON* • Separate Audio Level VU Meter. • RF Signal-Strength Meter. • Exclusive IF muting circuit. • CONTROLS: Station Selector with Automatic Micro Tune AFC, Audio Le

The Genius of Fisher Engineering

World-famous Fisher Engineering Laboratories have been responsible for more engineering breakthroughs and more significant innovations in the audio science than any other single group. Regardless of the FISHER FM Tuner you select, you can be assured of enjoying an instrument that is without equal — in its appearance, function, quality of performance, and convenience of use. Here are some of the more recent achievements in FM Stereo Tuner design that are truly hallmarks in the advancement of audio engineering.

GOLDEN SYNCHRODE

This new FISHER front-end design comprises a high-gain, frame-grid triode plus three tuned variable circuits and an additional fixed input circuit of revolutionary design. It affords extremely high selectivity and rejection of spurious image and IF response, with far greater overload protection than any previous design. This feature is particularly important in those urban areas having a number of nearby, powerful radio stations.

GOLDEN CASCODE

This widely-acclaimed FISHER front-end design provides unprecedented sensitivity as well as outstanding image and spurious response rejection. In the FISHER FM-200-B, MF-300 and the FISHER FM-1000, the famous GOLDEN CASCODE circuit uses a four-gang variable condenser (four separate, tuned circuits) to provide a degree of selectivity heretofore considered unattainable.

STEREO BEAM and STEREO BEACON

These FISHER inventions make multiplex a pleasure, not a problem! For the complete enjoyment of stereo programs, FISHER engineers created exclusive STEREO BEAM and STEREO BEACON. STEREO BEAM automatically signals the presence of FM-Stereo Multiplex programs. STEREO BEACON not only automatically indicates (with a jewel-beacon) the presence of FM-Stereo programs, but automatically switches the equipment to stereo operation. On monaural programs, STEREO BEACON automatically switches the equipment to mono operation. Every FISHER tuner and receiver features STEREO BEAM or STEREO BEACON as one of many advanced engineering features.

THE FISHER MF-300

The fabulous, new Remote Control FM-Stereo-Multiplex Tuner.
As an entirely new wide-band FM-Stereo-Multiplex Tuner, the MF-300 is comparable to the finest Fisher tuners in its performance, design and basic front-end circuitry. As an instrument with a remote control unit, or optional wireless remote control transmitter-receiver, it represents a significant breakthrough in audio technology.

Here are some of the outstanding features of both the FISHER MF-300 remote unit, and its optional wireless remote control Model RK-20, transmitter-receiver.

EXCLUSIVE TUNE-O-MATIC MOTOR TUNING
Extensive tests prove that FISHER TUNE-O-MATIC motor tuning is three times more accurate than the most careful manual tuning, even with laboratory-type tuning meters.

EXCLUSIVE WIRELESS REMOTE CONTROL (OPTIONAL) WITH TILT-TUNE

Automatic tuning action and volume level setting can be controlled from any part of the room by pressing the TUNE or VOLUME control button. Tilting the Remote Control Unit to the left moves the dial pointer in that direction, (or lowers the volume). Tilting the Remote Control Unit to the right moves the dial pointer in that direction, (or raises the volume). The entire high fidelity system can be turned off, or on, with the Remote Control Unit (excepting the transistorized Remote Control Receiver which uses negligible current).

EXCLUSIVE MULTI-TUNING FLEXIBILITY AND CONVENIENCE
There are three different methods of tuning. Tuning can be accomplished by (1) using the two pushbuttons on the MF-300 control panel; (2) using pushbuttons on the wire remote control unit, Model RK-10, or the wireless remote control unit, Model RK-20; and (3) using the tuning knob for manual tuning. AFC can be switched off during tuning for maximum manual tuning accuracy. During the automatic tuning sequence, AFC is atomatically defeated until the exact center-of-channel position is reached. Then, the powerful AFC circuit comes into operation, to correct the infinitesimal tuning error, if any, of the TUNE-O-MATIC circuit.

EXCLUSIVE THREE-POSITION MUTING SWITCH

With the Muting Switch in OFF position, the TUNE-O-MATIC circuit will stop at all stations on the band, even those so weak that an ordinary tuner could not receive them. With the switch in NORMAL position, these weak stations are bypassed by the TUNE-O-MATIC circuit. With the Muting switch in MAX position, the TUNE-O-MATIC will stop only at stations delivering a powerful signal at the location. In extreme fringe areas, this eliminates interference or other difficulties occasionally present in such locations. Regardless of the position of the Muting Switch, once the exact center-of-channel is reached, the full sensitivity of the tuner is restored, for optimum performance.

THREE-POSITION SELECTOR SWITCH

The MONO position prevents interference on stations broadcasting subscriber background music. The AUTOMATIC position provides normal reception for both mono and stereo programs. The STEREO position provides locked stereo reception on fading signals.

THE WIRELESS REMOTE CONTROL TRANSMITTER-RECEIVER, MODEL RK-20

TRANSMITTER. The two pushbuttons on the transmitter are marked "TUNE" and "VOLUME" respectively. Depress the "TUNE" button and tilt to the left to move the dial pointer in that direction. Tilt to right for tuning to the right. Depress the "VOLUME" button and tilt to left for less volume, and for turning off the entire high fidelity system; tilt to right to turn on the system and for increased volume.

REMOTE CONTROL RECEIVER. There are two basic controls on the receiver — an ON-OFF pushbutton to shut off the operation of the Remote Control Receiver itself, and a Stereo Volume Control with illuminated position indicator. By turning this control fully counter-clockwise, the entire high fidelity system can be shut off.
One can turn on the entire high fidelity system, by remote control, by depressing the VOLUME pushbutton on the transmitter and tilting the unit to the right. This also increases the volume level. The volume control setting is shown by a bright red indicator light and is visible at any distance. Since it is necessary for the remote control receiver to remain in operation under normal use to be able to receive all commands, a green STANDBY light indicating this status remains lit even when the entire high fidelity system is shut off. To shut off all the equipment, simply press the ON-OFF pushbutton at the top of the remote control receiver.

More power and greater control flexibility on separate, or one beautifully integrated chassis!

An amplifier has two basic functions - to boost signal strength and control signal characteristics. Separate Fisher power and control amplifiers achieve the ultimate degree of perfection. They are the finest professional amplification systems in existence. When both functions are integrated in one chassis, the result is a Fisher Master Control Amplifier in a class of perfectionist equipment formerly available only as a two-chassis system.

THE FISHER X-100-B

50-WATT MASTER CONTROL AMPLIFIER
This instrument provides maximum circuit flexibility with a full complement of precision controls of instantly appreciated simplicity. It is the unquestioned leader in its moderate price range and incorporates the latest FISHER engineering developments for unlimited versatility. These include an earphone jack with speaker silencing switch and a center channel output. The FISHER X-100-B can be used with several accessory components, all of which are easily connected and require no modification of the amplifier.

OUTSTANDING FEATURES
• CONTROLS: Balance, Volume (with AC Power Switch), Dual-Concentric Bass and Treble. Switches: Speaker, Equalization, High Filter, Tape Monitor, Loudness Contour. Input Selector Positions: tape head, phono, tuner, aux, tape play. Mode Positions: mono, stereo, reverse.

THE FISHER X-101-C

60-WATT MASTER CONTROL AMPLIFIER
Among the many convenience features of this new Fisher amplifier is an ingenious Hinged Control-Cover — a feature that is years ahead of its time in basic design. Its provides a convenience so obvious and long-needed that it is destined to become standard design practice. Constantly-used controls are in full view, instantly accessible. Occasionally-used controls are concealed behind the Hinged Control-Cover, yet are immediately accessible. (See details on page 29.)

OUTSTANDING FEATURES
• Power-derived output permits direct connection of center-channel or extension speaker. Exclusive FISHER DIRECT-TAPE-MONITOR.* Full complement of controls, including earphone jack with speaker silencing switch and a center channel output.

THE FISHER X-202-B

80-WATT MASTER CONTROL AMPLIFIER
This amplifier is a masterful combination of a remarkably flexible Master Audio Control and a high-powered, dual-channel amplifier. The exclusive FISHER DIRECT-TAPE-MONITOR* has been incorporated. At the flick of a switch, it permits monitoring, with the use of all controls and switches during tape playback, without changing cable connections. The FISHER X-202-B has an earphone jack on the front panel, with speaker silencing switch, and a center channel output.

OUTSTANDING FEATURES
• CONTROLS: Stereo Dimension, Balance, Dual-Concentric Bass and Treble, Center Speaker Switch, Five-Position Mode Selector, Nine-Position Program Selector (mic, 3%, 7%, col, riaa-1, riaa-2, tuner, aux, tape play) , Loudness Contour.

THE FISHER X-1000

110-WATT MASTER CONTROL AMPLIFIER
The FISHER Studio Standard, Model X-1000, is by far the most powerful and in every way the most advanced single-chassis Control Amplifier in the world. Equipment of this caliber has heretofore been available only as two separate units, requiring considerably more space, as well as being significantly higher in cost. Two earphone jacks are included on the front panel.

OUTSTANDING FEATURES
• CONTROLS: Low Level Inputs, Center Power Level, Earphones/Speakers Selector, Dual-Concentric Bass and Treble, Two Earphone Jacks, Nine-Position Program Equalizer Control, Five-Position Mode Selector Switch, Stereo Balance Control, Volume and Loudness Contour, Stereo Dimension.

THE FISHER 400-CX

STEREO MASTER AUDIO CONTROL
This instrument has been designed, from the outset, to meet every possible audio requirement. It has twenty-eight controls and eighteen inputs, all so simply arranged that even a novice can operate them easily. The exclusive full-range stereo dimension control widens or narrows the apparent acoustic distance between stereo speakers. A jewel light system, visible from any listening position, indicates exact setting of mode selector switch. Exclusive FISHER DIRECT TAPE MONITOR* permits the utilization of all audio controls during tape playback, without changing cable connections.

OUTSTANDING FEATURES
• CONTROLS: Stereo Dimension, Master Volume (On-Off), 8-position Low-Level Equalizer, Stereo Balance, Dual-Concentric Bass and Treble, Mono-Stereo Mode Selector, Center-Speaker Volume.

NEW FISHER SA-1000

150-WATT STEREO POWER AMPLIFIER
Here is a truly remarkable instrument that possesses ample reserve capacity for all applications, including use in the largest auditoriums and theatres. It is conservatively rated at 130 Watts of RMS Power, and 150 Watts of Music Power, with both channels operating simultaneously. The output stage features the newly developed Type 8417 beam power pentode, never before used in any electronic device. It offers extreme linearity resulting in very low distortion. The Driver Stage utilizes a 6HU8/ELL80 dual power pentode in a triode-connected configuration. This circuit is capable of delivering 40% more drive than the required signal. More important, it has an unusually rapid recovery time resulting in superb transient response. As a new FISHER design feature, the famous HINGED CONTROL-COVER has been incorporated into this professional-type power amplifier, to further enhance its visual appeal. For full details, see page 29.

The Genius of Fisher Engineering

The newest series of Fisher Amplifiers was designed explicitly to meet the needs of people who demand technical versatility as well as 'no-compromise' design. Preserving intact the functional specialties of individual units, Fisher has produced an outstanding group of Amplifiers incorporating the most advanced engineering developments.
.

THE NEW FISHER HINGED CONTRQL-COVER

A New Convenience Feature
The new FISHER X-101-C master control amplifier
was designed to be the first genuine all-family amplifier in high fidelity history. For the audiophile members of the family, the FISHER X-101-C incorporates comprehensive controls of utmost versatility. But for immediate enjoyment of stereo by even the least technically inclined members of the family, only the 'must' controls are in full view, for instant use. These frequently-used controls consist of the Pushbutton Program Selector (tape head, phono, tuner, aux, tape play), Mode Selector (stereo, mono, reverse), and Volume Control. The occasionally-used controls are hidden behind the Control Cover, yet are immediately accessible when needed. They consist of four controls (output selector, bass, treble, balance), and four switches, (equalization, high filter, tape monitor, loudness contour.)
.

Das hier war wirklich neu:

Auch The Fisher hatte jetzt mit 2 x 65 Watt Sinus einen richtigen Power-Endverstärker auf Röhrenbasis. Die eigen geschlossenen 4-Wege Boxen waren doch zu ineffektiv, um mit den 2 x 25 Watt Sinus des alten Röhren- End-Verstärkers ausreichend zu sounden.

.

THE NEW FISHER SA-1000
150-Watt Laboratory Standard Power Amplifier

THE FISHER SA-1000 150-Watt (IHF) Power Amplifier has more than enough power to drive any speakers in any room under any listening condition. This professional-type power amplifier, years ahead of its time in basic design, circuitry and overall engineering concept, is representative of the achievements of Fisher Engineering Laboratories. This instrument possesses ample reserve capacity for all applications, including use in the largest auditoriums and theatres, although conservatively rated at 130 watts of RMS Power, and 150 watts of Music Power with both channels operating simultaneously.

The Output Stage of the FISHER SA-1000
features the newly developed Type 8417 beam power pentode, never before used in any electronic device. This new tube, specifically designed for application in the SA-1000, offers extreme linearity resulting in very low distortion. Each pair of 8417 tubes, operating in Class AB with fixed bias, drives an over-sized output transformer via plate-cathode coupling (modified ultra-linear). The cathode coupling provides 12 db of negative feedback in the output stage to reduce distortion without affecting stability due to the phase shift problems usually associated with high overall feedback. High frequency distortion is thus significantly reduced in the output stage since the feedback provided by the cathode coupling is fully effective throughout the frequency range.

The output transformer itself is custom-wound to rigid Fisher specifications. Besides its conservative design, its one remarkable characteristic is the extremely smooth roll-off below 5 cps and above 200 kc without peaks or dips. This results in an exceptional stability and square wave performance.

The Driver Stage in a high-power, high quality power amplifier, is often considered as important as the output stage, because of its effect on the "sound" or listening quality of the instrument. It is not only important that the driver provide sufficient, low distortion signal, but that it do so at a very low impedance to promote stability and transient response in the output stage. To do this effectively, the Fisher Engineering Laboratories have developed a novel driver stage utilizing a 6HU8/ELL80 dual power pentode in a triode-connected configuration. This circuit is capable of delivering 40% more drive than the required signal — and at an extremely low impedance. More important, it has an unusually rapid recovery time resulting in superb transient response.

The Pre-Driver, Phase-Inverter utilizes an ECC83/12AX7 dual tri-ode in DC coupled Cathodyne phase-splitter. This Cathodyne (or cathode-follower) type phase inverter was selected for its self-compensating ability to maintain balance despite tube aging. A feedback loop from the output transformer secondary to the pre-drive cathode provides 17 db of feedback to maintain low distortion in the pre-driver, phase-inverter and driver stages.

The Input Stage of the SA-1000 is unique in that its compensated attenuator, cathode-follower configuration is generally used only in laboratory oscilloscopes.
The cathode follower circuit was chosen for several reasons: it assures a high input impedance to prevent loading of the input source; provides complete isolation between the input and the feedback circuit (the pre-driver cathode) ; maintains a wide frequency response. In reference to this last characteristic, it is interesting to note that the pre-driver stage itself is flat to within ± 1.0 db up to 11 megacycles!

A switchable sub-sonic filter is provided in the grid circuit to prevent speaker damage as a result of turntable rumble, off-center records, etc. The input attenuator provides calibrated 3 db steps from 0 to —12 db while maintaining a constant input impedance. This permits operating the preamplifier volume control at its optimum range.

The tube in this stage, also of recent design, is specifically intended for input stages because of its unusually low hum and noise, and also features a built-in shield completely isolating both sections.

The Power Supply in The FISHER SA-1000 is unusually elaborate for a power amplifier. To provide full power output with both channels driven, separate rectifier-filter circuits are used for the plate and screen-grid supplies of the output tubes. An additional rectifier-filter supplies bias voltage. Silicon diodes are used throughout to improve regulation and promote trouble-free service.

Extensive filtering (a total of 780 mfd) helps assure an extremely low hum of better than 90 db below rated output. In keeping with the conservative design, the diodes and capacitors are worked well under their ratings. In fact, the diodes are capable of supplying 2 to 3 times the current required for full output.

New Fisher Three-Way Loudspeaker Systems

The perfection of sound reproduction: high compliance and high efficiency in new compact enclosures of unequalled excellence.

THE FISHER XP-4A

FOUR SPEAKER THREE-WAY SPEAKER SYSTEM —
The new FISHER XP-4A incorporates several significant advancements in loudspeaker design .and construction. As a totally new concept, it utilizes a voice coil wound on pure electrolytic copper. This affords a superior resistance to humidity and temperature variations, and offers a pronounced electrical damping effect on all moving parts of the speaker mechanism.

THE FISHER XP-1A

THREE-WAY SPEAKER SYSTEM —
The new FISHER XP-1A has the most advanced engineering features, including a balance control to permit the user to adjust the ratio of the low and high- frequency response to suit precisely the demands of the room acoustics and personal taste.

THE FISHER XP-2A

THREE-WAY SPEAKER SYSTEM —
In the FISHER XP-2A Speaker System, the many advantages of FISHER high-efficiency, high-compliance design have been incorporated in a unit of moderate price. Through its carefully evolved design, the FISHER XP-2A offers a remarkable transient response and an unusually high overload capacity.

THE FISHER KS-1A

SLIM-LINE THREE-WAY SPEAKER SYSTEM —
Extreme clarity, precise transients, full and rich texture — these are of a calibre truly unprecedented in a system of this compact size. The new FISHER KS-1A lends itself to virtually any type of installation. It can be mounted on a wall or placed on the floor, without degradation in bass response.

THE FISHER MODEL K-10 DYNAMIC SPACEXPANDER

With this remarkable device, the owner of a home music system can now add a new dimension to listening—the dimension that comes from the addition of natural reverberation to the program. One control regulates the desired degree of reverberation.

The basic principle involved is quite simple. Natural reverberation is created by the reflection of sound from the walls and ceiling. These reflections reach the listener's ears a fraction of a second later than the direct sound from the orchestra or soloist. It is this slight 'delay' that makes it possible for one to sense the size of the room or auditorium.

The FISHER K-10 Dynamic Spacexpander® recreates electronically the reverberation of the concert hall and, in this manner, makes for auditorium listening pleasure even in the smallest of rooms. The K-10 works equally well on records, tape and broadcasts. Installation is simple.

THE FISHER WS-1

Wide-Surround® Speaker System
These extremely compact units augment the sound from the primary speaker systems to create a breadth of music reproduction that makes every seat in the room a 'front-row-center' location. The FISHER Wide-Surround® system will overcome the 'point source' of sound, and give the listener the illusion that he is sitting in one of the most desirable seats in the concert hall.
OUTSTANDING FEATURES • 10" x 2%" oval, Alnico V permanent magnet speaker. • Frequency Response: 250 to 15,000 cps, cutoff at 250 cycles. "Available in modern, Walnut or Mahogany; French provincial, Cherry; Italian provincial, Distressed Walnut. • dimensions: 11%" wide, 3%" high, 4%" deep. weight: 4>y2 pounds.

THE FISHER PR-6

BASIC PREAMPLIFIER (mono)
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
• Two high gain triode stages (6SC7.) "Gain: Phono, 1 v output for 10 mv input; microphone, 1 v output for 1 mv input; tape, 1 v output for 5 mv input. "Frequency Response: 30 to 20,000 cps within ±2 db. "Hum: Better than 60 db below 1 v for phono; better than 70 db below 1 v for microphone. • Equalization: RIAA for phono, NAB for tape. • Self-Powered (105-120 V.A.C.) -dimensions: 3%" wide, 3%" high, 3%" deep. •weight: 1% pounds.

THE FISHER RK-1

STEREO REMOTE CONTROL UNIT For use with the FISHER 400-CX, X-l 000 and X-202-B - Now a listener can balance the level in a stereophonic system simply by turning the dials of the remote control unit.
The FISHER RK-1 consists of a control assembly, 30 feet of cable and an adaptor plug. When in operation, the left dial controls volume from speakers at the left, and the right dial regulates volume from speakers at the right.

THE FISHER MULTIPLEX GENERATOR MODEL 300

A complete test generator, with built-in FM signal generator, designed and constructed to rigid laboratory specifications.
This new FISHER Multiplex Signal Test Generator features high accuracy and extreme stability, more than necessary to meet the strict requirements of the Multiplex system approved by the Federal Communications Commission.
OUTSTANDING FEATURES
• Front panel output meter is a true peak-to-peak indicator, providing the only correct method of measuring the complex waveform of the composite Multiplex signal.
• The phase relationship of the 19 Kc pilot carrier and the composite signal can be monitored (with an oscilloscope) from the special 19 Kc output on the front panel.
• The amplitude of the 19 Kc signal can be monitored simply by depressing a front-panel push-button. Amplitude and phase adjustments of the 19 Kc signal are also available on the front panel.
• A built-in switchable pre-emphasis network permits both rapid checks of the de-emphasis circuits and introduction of standard FM transmission equalization. Audible tests can be conducted under perfectly simulated transmission conditions.
• The built-in FM signal generator, although aligned at the factory at 100 Mc, is adjustable within a range from 97 to 103 Mc. This makes it possible to avoid interference with local stations.

Universal Multiplex Adapters

Anmerkung: Das sind Überbleibsel, die bestimmt unbedingt noch abverkauft werden mußten.

THE FISHER MPX-100

With Exclusive STEREO BEACON

THE FISHER MPX-200

For Concealed Installation
Your present stereo system is not obsolete! Add a FISHER Multiplex Adaptor to any good quality tuner and you can enjoy FM-Stereo-Multiplex.
OUTSTANDING FEATURES OF THE FISHER MPX-100
• Selector (ac power, tuner, stereo-mono automatic, stereo manual). • Two-Position Noise Filter • Auxiliary AC receptacle on rear apron. • Dual Output Level Controls.
• Variable Separation Control. • Two Output and Four Input Jacks. • Cabinets in Walnut, Model 40-UW, and Mahogany, Model 40-UM. • chassis dimensions: 4%" wide, 4 13/16" high, 12" deep. • weight: 9 pounds.
OUTSTANDING FEATURES OF THE FISHER MPX-200
• Self-powered. • Can be placed up to three feet from tuner or receiver. • Two Level Controls match the volume of the Stereo programs to phono, tape, etc. • Selector Switch to record stereo programs monophonically! • Precision separation control matches the MPX-200 to any tuner or receiver. • Unusually effective filtering, for flawless tape recording. • chassis dimensions: 12" wide, 4" high, 3%" deep. • WEIGHT: 3% pounds. *Patent Pending

For outstanding value and top perfomance -
build FISHER High Fidelity STRATAKITS

You do not need technical knowledge, special skills or a workbench full of tools to build a FISHER StrataKit.

The StrataKit method of construction permits assembly by easy, error-proof stages (Strata), each stage corresponding to a specific, illustrated page in the Instruction Manual and to a separate, clearly identified transparent packet of parts. Large, three-dimensional diagrams guide you every step of the way. Just perform the numbered step and check it off. Errors of omission, if any, can thus be checked stage-by-stage and page-by-page before proceeding to the next stage. It's that simple with a FISHER StkataKit. Major components come already mounted on the chassis, and wires are pre-cut to length and pre-stripped for every stage. Schematic diagrams are also included for those who like to see how the various electronic circuits are designed.

The Fisher - Stratakits

Anmerkung: Die beiden anderen Großen (Harman Kardon und Heatchkit) machten es vor, der Kunde wollte die Hifi-Oberklasse, konnte (oder wollte) es aber nicht bezahlen. Also bot man Bausätze an.

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THE FISHER KM-60

THE FISHER KM-60 - Fertiggerät
THE FISHER KM-60 - Bausatz

FM-Stereo-Multiplex Wide-Band Tuner With Exclusive Stereo Beam

Here is the supreme culmination of FISHER engineering genius — an extremely sensitive tuner with the most sophisticated FM circuitry. Truly, the KM-60 is an investment that assures the kit builder years of unsurpassed performance.


OUTSTANDING FEATURES
• Extremely wide-band design, coupled with advanced multiplex circuitry and the new GOLDEN CASCODE front-end, assure the clearest and most reliable reception possible even from weak signals or distant stations. • STEREO BEAM indicates whether or not the FM station is broadcasting in stereo. Makes Multiplex a pleasure, not a problem. • Precision d'Arsonval meter for micro-accurate tuning or easy, fool-proof alignment of the IF and ratio detector sections. • FM-Stereo sub-carrier filter suppresses noise on the sub-carrier when reception conditions are poor (weak signals or fringe areas) without affecting the frequency response of the signal. • Pre-aligned front-end and Multiplex section are factory aligned and tested, and mounted on the chassis. No electronic instruments for alignment are necessary. • Four IF stages and two limiters assure enjoyable, distortion-free reception to a degree never before attained in any tuner kit.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
• Sensitivity: 0.6 microvolts (20 db quieting with 72-ohm antenna), 1.8 microvolts IHFM standard. • Signal-to-noise ratio: 70 db (at 100% modulation.) • Selectivity: 60 db (alternate channel.)
• Capture Ratio: 2.5 db (IHFM standard.) • FM Harmonic Distortion: Less than 0.5% (400 cps, 100% modulated.) B Audio Frequency Response: Uniform, ±1 db, 20-15,000 cps (after de-emphasis.) • Rated Output Voltage: 2.0 volts. • Eleven Tubes. Twelve Diodes. Selenium Rectifier. • dimensions: 15%" wide, 4-13/16" high, 13" deep. • shipping weight: 18 pounds. • Wood Cabinets in Walnut, Model 10-UW; Mahogany, Model 10-UM; and Metal Cabinet in simulated leather, Model MC-2.

THE FISHEE KX-200

80-WATT STEREO MASTER CONTROL AMPLIFIER
The most advanced features of a separate power amplifier and audio control unit are combined on one chassis to afford the kit builder all the perfection of versatility and performance formerly available only from FISHER factory-wired master control amplifiers.


OUTSTANDING FEATURES
• 80 Watts of Music Power. It will drive even the lowest-efficiency speaker systems to their maximum performance levels. • Precision d'Arsonval laboratory-type calibration meter permits accurate adjustment for peak performance. Optimum results are thus guaranteed from the start and in the years ahead. • A special power output is provided for a center channel or remote speaker. An additional amplifier is not required. This speaker can be controlled independently, from the front control panel of the KX-200. • Full-wave Silicon Rectifier power supply. DC voltage is provided for operation of all voltage amplifier heaters, not merely for the preamplifier heaters. • Total Range Dimension Control provides any degree of separation from a maximum stereophonic to a mono-phonic signal. • Equalization Switch and Dual-magnetic inputs permit connection of two magnetic cartridges, two tape heads, or one magnetic cartridge and one tape head. • Tape monitor facilities, dual bass and treble controls, loudness contour and high frequency filter switches, plus a host of other refinements, assure ease of operation and full enjoyment of the musical program.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
• Music Power Output: 80 watts (IHFM Standard, both channels.) • Harmonic Distortion: 0.4% (at rated output.) • Frequency Response: Uniform 20-20,000 cps ±1 db. Power Amplifier Section: 10-110,000 cps, +0, -1 db. • Total Hum and Noise: High Level Inputs, 80 db (450 mv ref.) ; Low Level Inputs, 66 db (6 mv ref.) • Input Sensitivity: High Level, 350 mv; Low Level, 3.5 mv. • Feedback Factor: 22 db. • Damping Factor: 10. • Bass Control Range: 30 db total (at 50 cps.) • Treble'Control Range: 32 db total (at 10 kc.) • Output Impedance: 4, 8, 16 ohms (each channel.) • dimensions: 15%" wide, 4-13/16" high, 12W' deep.
• shipping weight: 26 pounds. • Wood Cabinets available in Walnut, Model 10-UW; Mahogany, Model 10-UM; and Metal Cabinet in simulated leather, Model MC-2.

THE FISHER KX-100

50-WATT STEREO MASTER CONTROL AMPLIFIER
In its dimensions, and at its price range, the FISHER KX-100 has no equal in performance. It has been created for those who seek, in kit form, great reserve power and flexible audio control on one chassis.

OUTSTANDING FEATURES
• 50 Watts of Music Power. Has ample reserve power to drive the most inefficient speakers to maximum performance levels. • A special power output is provided for a center channel or remote speaker. An additional amplifier is not required. • Exclusive FISHER Duplex Tape Monitor permits tape monitoring with use of all tone controls without changing cable connections. • Has a front-panel headphone jack and switch for silencing speakers if desired. • Complete set of controls and switches, including High Filter, Loudness Contour and Equalization switches for tape decks and record players are included, as well as dual Bass and Treble controls and a full-range Balance Control.
TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS
• Music Power Output: 50 watts (IHFM Standard, both channels.) • RMS Power (0.5% total harmonic distortion at 1 Kc, channels driven separately.) : 24 watts. • RMS Power (1.0% IM distortion, SMPTE, channels driven simultaneously.) : 24 watts. • Harmonic Distortion: 0.5% (at rated output.) • Frequency Response: Uniform 20-20,000 cps within 1 db. Power Amplifier Section: 10-75,000 cps, within 1 db. • Total Hum and Noise: High Level Inputs, 80 db (450 mv reference) ; Low Level Inputs, 65 db (6 mv reference.) • Input Sensitivity: High Level, 300 mv; Phono 3.5 mv; Tape, 2.0 mv. • Feedback Factor: 20 db. • Damping Factor: 8. • Bass Control Range: 22 db total (at 50 cps.) • Treble Control Range: 20 db total (at 10 kc.) • Output Impedance: 4, 8, 16 ohms (each channel.) • dimensions: 15%" wide, 12Ms" deep, bV±" high. • shipping weight : 24 pounds. • Wood Cabinets available in Walnut (Model 10-UW) ; Mahogany (Model 10-UM) ; Metal Cabinet in simulated leather (Model MC-2.)

The FISHER Model KS-1

The FISHER Model KS-1 Slim-Line Loudspeaker System uses the most advanced components and is engineered for unequalled sound. The unstrained transparent quality of the FISHER Slim-Line Speakers is instantly apparent. Extreme clarity, precise transients, full and rich texture — these are of a calibre truly unprecedented in a system of this size and cost.

The FISHER Slim-Line Speaker System lends itself to virtually any type of installation. It can be mounted on a wall or placed on the floor or in a bookshelf, without any degradation in bass response. The cabinet can be stained or painted as desired.

This new FISHER Speaker System is also available as a factory-assembled unit in finished-sanded birch or Scandinavian walnut, and is supplied with wall-mounting accessories. The attractive durable plastic grill cloth comes in a neutral color which will match any room decor.

TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS

• Speaker Complement: 10-inch free-piston woofer with 30 cps free-air resonance and 4^-pound magnet structure; 5-inch Acousti-Glas packed midrange unit; 3%" super-tweeter. All speakers are accurately balanced at the factory for overall smoothness of response. • Frequency Response: 40 cps to 18,500 cps. • Power: Only 10 watts required to achieve full room level (can safely handle 60 watts). • LC-type crossover network with heavy air-core coils.
• Crossover frequencies: 1600 and 5000 cps. • Impedance: 8 ohms.
• Cabinets are supplied with AcoustiGlas padding to eliminate resonance and parasitic vibration. • Cabinets in birch or walnut, sanded ready for painting or staining. Styled to harmonize with any room decor. • Dimensions: 18" wide, 24" high, only 5%" deep.
• Shipping Weight: 26 pounds.

THE FISHER LINCOLN

the only automatic turntable that turns your records over (not just 'round and 'round)

Automatic TURN-OVER TURNTABLE MODEL 70

Now music lovers everywhere can enjoy a complete selection of their favorite records — even intermix 7", 10" and 12" records — without any disturbance or interruption to their musical pleasure. The amazing new Fisher-Lincoln will not only take up to ten records at one time, but will play all twenty sides without anyone lifting a finger.

Unlike mass-produced mechanical record changers, the Fisher- "Lincoln Model 70" utilizes air as the motive power for all movements, thus providing a resilient cushion which prevents jamming of mechanical parts. This laboratory-quality record player is so trouble-proof, so easy to operate, and so smooth and quiet, that comparison to any existing brand is impossible.

OUTSTANDING FEATURES
• Automatically plays BOTH sides of each record, or one side only. Handles 33% RPM speeds of 7", 10" and 12" records intermixed, and in any sequence.
• Handles up to ten records (twenty sides) — over eight hours of continuous music. Also plays single records (one or both sides.)
• Conical-shaped Teflon bearings in the turntable, which run
on polished hardened steel, completely eliminate the need for any lubrication during the life of the record player.
• Records are transported even more gently than one could by hand. No metal touches the record at any time during play. There is no stationary spindle and therefore center-hole wear is eliminated.
• The only record in motion during operation is the one actually being played. There is no slippage. Furthermore, the tone arm and stylus are always at the ideal angle. (On all other changers the stylus angle can be correct only for one of the records in the stack being played.)
• Studio quality, belt-driven turntable, precision heavy-duty motor. Drive wheels are released automatically at the end of play, eliminating rumble usually caused by drive wheel distortion.
• Final record grooves are protected against wear by the use of a proximity switch which is completely independent from the operational mechanism of the record player.
• Tone arm is designed with standard mount, for all makes of cartridges. Landing position is easily adjustable.
Specifications: 110 volts; 60 cycles ; maximum power consumption 4 amps. Shipping Weight: 65 lbs. Overall Space Requirements: 27" front to back, 19" high, 15^4" wide.
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Glossary
It's Easy To Understand Technical Specifications!

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  • AF (AUDIO FREQUENCY) Frequency within the range of human hearing - approximately 20 to 20,000 cps. Applies both to soundwaves and to the electrical signals which represent them.
  • AM (AMPLITUDE MODULATION) Modulation accomplished by varying the instantaneous amplitude (intensity) of the carrier. Since an AM receiver must therefore be able to detect amplitude variations, it responds equally well to naturally-produced amplitude peaks: lightning, ignition interference, etc.
  • AUDIO Used interchangeably with AF. Also, the science of sound recording and reproduction, including acoustics.
  • CAPACITOR (CONDENSER) Circuit device capable of storing electric charge. It also has the property of passing alternating current while blocking direct current, and of presenting a greater resistance to the flow of alternating current as its frequency decreases. All these properties are used in electronic circuits.
  • CAPTURE RATIO Ability of a tuner to reject unwanted FM stations on the same frequency as a desired one; measured in db. The lower the figure, the better the tuner's performance.
  • CARRIER A steady RF alternating current radiated into space by a transmitter-and-antenna system.
  • CASCODE Circuit designed around two low-noise triode tubes which provides approximately the same amplification as a pentode, but with less noise. This makes it ideal for amplification of weak FM signals.
  • CROSSOVER NETWORK Circuit for dividing the audio range into two or more parts before feeding the signals to separate 'specialized' speakers: woofers, mid-range, and tweeter.
  • DB (DECIBEL) Unit of measure to indicate relative levels of voltage, current, power, or sound.
  • DERIVED CENTER CHANNEL Monophonic composite signal derived from the sum or difference of the left and right stereo channels, often fed to an extra speaker to fill in an aural 'hole' between the left and right speakers. A sum (left-plus-right) signal can also be used for feeding a remote speaker elsewhere in the home.
  • EQUALIZATION Correction for non-uniform recording of low and high frequencies. For valid technical reasons, disc records are cut with low frequencies attenuated and high frequencies boosted. Equalization compensates electrically for this imbalance and produces a uniform frequency response.
  • FEEDBACK Taking a portion of the output signal from an amplifier and feeding it back to the input. Negative feedback tends to make an amplifier self-compensating; irregularities in the output (distortion) not present at the input are cancelled. This applies also to hum, noise, or a non-uniform frequency response.
  • FM (FREQUENCY MODULATION) Modulation of a carrier by changing its instantaneous frequency, rather than its amplitude, in accordance with speech or music signals. By designing the FM receiver to respond only to FM, and to reject AM caused by lightning or auto ignition pulses, noise-free reception becomes a possibility. This is one of the advantages of FM which has helped make it popular for high fidelity.
  • FREQUENCY Number of "back-and-forth" vibrations of a sound wave or alternating current in a second; expressed as cycles per second (cps.)
  • FREQUENCY RESPONSE Range of audio frequencies handled by a system or High Fidelity component.
  • GAIN Amount of amplification (in amplifiers or amplifying stages.)
  • GOLDEN SYNCHRODE An exclusive FISHER-engineered FM front-end providing high gain at low noise, and superior image and IF rejection. It uses a single high-transconductance frame-grid triode, neutralized for stability and low noise.
  • HARMONIC DISTORTION Production of undesired harmonics (overtones) which were not present in the original program material (expressed as a percentage.)
  • HUM The low-pitched, steady tone produced in an amplifier by the AC power frequency (60 cps) and its harmonics.
  • The only way to protect your investment in high fidelity is to know what you are buying. That is why we always publish full specifications. These specifications are your yardstick, revealing just what you are getting when you buy a FISHER component. Here is a simple explanation of the most important terms.
  • IF (INTERMEDIATE FREQUENCY) Constant difference frequency produced by mixing an incoming signal with a signal generated in the set at a different frequency. This superheterodyne principle offers important advantages over other methods of reception.
  • IM (INTERMODULATION) DISTORTION Production of undesired tones resulting from mixing, in an amplifier, of two or more pure tones (expressed as a percentage.) Low IM is vital for 'clean' sound.
  • IMPEDANCE Resistance to flow of alternating current (expressed in ohms.) Generally changes with the frequency of the applied alternating current.
  • LIMITERS FM tuner stages that reject spurious amplitude interference (from atmospheric noise or ignition pulses) and leave a pure, constant-amplitude FM signal. The FM signal fed to such stages must have a certain minimum strength for limiting to occur. As with IF stages, the more stages the better, other factors remaining equal.
  • LOUDNESS CONTOUR Compensation for the ear's natural insensitivity to low and high frequencies at low volume levels, achieved by boosting extreme lows and high progressively as volume setting is lowered.
  • MODULATION Process of superimposing voice, music or other intelligence on a carrier wave. (See AM, FM, Carrier.)
  • MULTIPLEX Transmission of two or more channels on a single carrier so that they can be recovered independently at the receiver; in FM stereo, transmission of left-plus-right (sum) signal and left-minus-right (difference) signal on main carrier and subcarrier, respectively. The multiplex decoder in the receiver recovers independent left and right stereo channels from the multiplexed signal.
  • MUSIC POWER- This is the power output of an amplifier according to a rating standard applied by the Institute of High Fidelity (IHF) .
  • NOISE Unwanted random sound created in small amounts by electronic equipment, often heard as hiss. Good design reduces it to negligible proportions.
  • OSCILLATOR Electronic generator of alternating current. One of the fundamental electronic devices.
  • PEAK Maximum instantaneous voltage or power. Also, a sudden, momentary burst of sound.
  • POWER OUTPUT Maximum amount of power an amplifier can deliver.
  • RESISTOR Circuit device that offers resistance to flow of alternating or direct current. When current flows through a resistor, a voltage proportional both to the current and the resistance exists across it. This property and the fact that a resistor absorbs electric power, dissipating it as. heat, are used in electronics. Resistors are made of wire, metallic film, carbon, and other materials. They can be fixed or variable.
  • REVERBERATION Repetitive reflection of sound (from walls, etc.) Also, the spatial effect created thereby, which adds brilliance and warmth to sound, and helps to convey the size of the studio or hall.
  • RF (RADIO FREQUENCY) Alternating current of frequency greater than 15 or 20 kc. Specifically, alternating currents transmitted and received for communications or entertainment.
  • SELECTIVITY Normally, the ability to reject stations on the same frequency and on channels adjacent or alternate to the one being received.
  • SENSITIVITY In a tuner, the ability to provide usable reception of weak signals. Expressed, for FM tuners, as microvolts (millionths of a volt) needed for a given number of db quieting (noise suppression.) The lower the number in microvolts, the more sensitive the tuner.
  • SEPARATION In stereo, degree to which channels are kept apart. Stereo effect depends on preventing leakage of program material from one channel to the other.
  • SIGNAL-TO-NOISE RATIO Figure in db, expressing the ratio of desired signal voltage to random noise voltage. Look for a high db figure: the better the signal-to-noise ratio, the less background noise there will be in the reproduced program material.
  • TRANSFORMER Electrical device which steps up or steps down voltage. A power transformer is used to 'transform' 117-volt AC power ('house current') into various voltages needed to operate a tuner or amplifier.
  • Formerly Institute of High Fidelity Manufacturers (IHFM)

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